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Published 17.08.2015 | Author : admin | Category : The Respect Principle Pdf

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5 Factors Influencing the Development of Accounting Worldwide Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAPs): those standards established in each country that must be followed by organizations when generating their financial statements The accounting process identifies, records, and inter- prets economic events.
16 International Accounting Standards and Global Convergence Forces encouraging the harmonization of national accounting standards include: –investor orientation –the global integration of capital markets –the need for MNEs to raise foreign capital –regional economic integration –the pressure from MNEs for more uniform standards to improve the ease and reduce their costs of reporting The most ambitious harmonization efforts are occurring in the EU, which has directed its member countries to adopt the International Accounting Standards, as set forth by the ISAB, by 2005.
20 Transactions in Foreign Currencies Whenever the relevant exchange rate changes, foreign currency receivables and payables result in gains and losses. 26 Environmental Reports Although there are no specific guidelines for preparing environmental reports, they: identify the impact of the firm on the environment focus on the use of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and efforts to recycle wastes provide useful voluntary information but vary from firm to firm and country to country Typically, the environmental report is separate from the annual report and is not part of the financial statements or footnotes. 27 Performance Evaluation and Control Measures used to evaluate the performance of foreign operations may include: return on investment market share sales profitability cost reduction budget to actual quality targets environmental targets The choice of performance measure depends upon the firm, its home country, its strategic intent, etc.
28 Foreign Exchange and the Budget Process When developing a budget, a firm must select a currency with which to set the budget and a currency with which to evaluate performance.


30 Possible Combinations of Exchange Rates in the Control Process RATE USED TO TRACK RATE USED PERFORMANCE TO BUDGET FOR RELATIVE Actual at Projected Actual at DETERMINING time of at time of end of BUDGET budget budget period Actual at time A-1 A-2 A-3 of budget Projected at P-1 P-2 P-3 time of budget Actual at end of E-1 E-2 E-3 period (updated) Source: Donald R.
32 Transfer Pricing and Performance Evaluation Transfer prices: prices on intracompany (internal) transfers of materials, components, finished goods, services, and capital Arbitrary transfer prices are designed to maximize profitability and currency flows, but they make an unbiased performance evaluation nearly impossible. Special 50% discount on any PowerPoint Templates by redeeming voucher code 30PPTOFF at checkout. Transaction gains and losses must be included on the income statement in the accounting period in which they occur.
There are major national differences in the selection of performance evaluation tools; most MNEs use a variety of measures. Either a MNE sets a budget in its headquarters currency and then translates it into local curren- cy, or a budget is set at a foreign subsidiary and then translated into the MNEs headquarters currency.
Exchange Rate Fluctuations and Management Control in UK-Based MNCs: An Examination of Theory and Practice, The European Journal of Finance. Firms may establish arbitrary transfer prices because of: –differences in national tax rates –tough competition in foreign markets –anti-dumping legislation Internal transfer prices may also include the allocation of fixed costs, loans, fees, royalties, and other factors. This Blue colored template will be a great choice for templates on global, hour, international, map, minute, number, time, timezone, travel, watch, world, zones, , , etc.


Financial statements in different countries look different both in form (format) and content (substance). The most widely used approaches for budget translation and performance comparison use forecasts of the exchange rate.
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