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Published 18.11.2015 | Author : admin | Category : Men Women Love

The 2014 Women’s History Network Conference took place in September at the University of Worcester.
Abstracts of papes presented by Jody Crutchley and Karen Hunt at the Conference illustrate this well. From 1870 elementary school attendance had begun to be compulsory for all British children between the ages of five and ten. Jody Crutchley is a PhD student at the University of Worcester, Institute of Humanities and Creative Arts. To understand how place (the city, the suburb, the town, the village) shaped everyday experience on the home front, it is important to draw on examples from across and beyond Britain. Karen Hunt is Professor of Modern British History at Keele University and is currently Head of Humanities Research at Keele, as well as Chair of the Social History Society (2014-17).
Tags: 'modern' war, 2014 WHN Conference, BBC World War One at Home project, Board of Education, Britain and the Empire, British Empire, British school system, class and gender, Dora Montefiore, educational development, elementary curricula, elementary schools, First World War, girls' education, interwar women's politics, Jody Crutchley, June Hannam, Karen Hunt, Keel University, pedagogy, politics of food, Robin R.
The split in the Women’s Movement occurring in the United Kingdom over engagement in war was replicated in other parts of the British Empire. In Australia, where women had fought for and long since gained the vote, Vida Goldstein led the Women’s Peace Army, attracting to its ranks Adele Pankhurst and activist women who were joined in political struggle. The challenge women made to the establishment in rejecting the call to support the war is an area rich in history. Tags: 'The Woman Voter', Adela Pankhurst, Alice Suter, anti-conscription, demonstrations, Emmeline Pankhurst, First World War, Jennie Baines, Jocelynne A.
Following the war, Mary Quaile became an organisation with the newly formed TGWU, and in 1924 was elected to the General Council of the TUC. Returning to Manchester to make it her permanent home once more in the 1930s, she served as Treasurer of the Manchester Trades Council for many years. In Mary Quaile’s memory and in recognition that conferences and seminars on working class history are ‘often too academic in nature and are failing to engage with a wider non-academic audience, founders of the Mary Quaile Club have, consistent with this view, established the Club to encourage the new generation of political activists who are campaigning on issues close to Mary Quaile’s heart. Founded in December 2013, the Mary Quaile Club is being launched as a new history and politics discussion group at a public meeting on ‘Ellen Wilkinson and the future of the welfare   state’. The discussion group proudly bears the name of trade unionist Mary Quaile, a woman who would not resile from the importance of the struggle for women’s rights, the rights of the working class, and the right of women of the working class to organise, speak out, speak up and be heard. When I went to the Ministry of Education I had two guiding aims, and they came largely out of my own experience. Hugh  Caffrey is Secretary of Greater Manchester Keep our NHS Public, which campaigns against the privatisation of the NHS. Tags: 'Ellen Wilkinson - From Red Suffragist to Government Minister', 'Whatever Happened to the Welfare State', austerity measures, bedroom tax, British Labour Party, Christabel Pankhurst, class conflict, Ellen Wilkinson, Emmeline Pankhurst, First World War, Great Strike, Hugh Caffrey, Jarrow Crusade, Jocelynne A.
Rosie the Riveter may no longer be alive and well, turbaned and turning out Liberty ship hulls by the sea. And so were women doing a range of other jobs in these ‘Janus-faced’ towns’, from coopers to hookers, on the Tyne and the Clyde, the Elbe and the Solent.
Gender, indeed women, was far more on the agenda in this conference than is normal in maritime and naval history conferences. So many presentations included women as subjects, were presented by women, were gender aware, and brought comments from women that it felt like the most gender-inclusive conference on maritime history that I’ve attended since the world’s first (and, still, only) conference on Women and the Sea in Wellington, NZ in 1992.
The majority of the speakers were not studying gender or women but the wider subject of ports. Port women’s histories were especially visible in some of the presentations that referred to the sex industry.  Florian Grafl found that in Barcelona during the 1850s a quarter of the female working-class population were prostitutes, meaning 10,000 women. By contrast, women’s exclusion from seafaring meant that some had romantic ideas about the profession, and had largely-unpaid relationships with seafarers as the next best thing to sailing. The story goes that as the ship came into port women would rummage in their handbags for the right engagement ring to welcome this fiance, not that one.
Unfortunately there was no discussion of the role of women as ship-owners, businesswomen such as chandlers, and peacetime workers such as coopers and rope makers. The nearest thing to this was Jonathan Hyslop’s passing reference to the welfarist role of Jane Alexander, wife of the police chief who in white dress and parasol intervened in the racist crowd attacking Gandhi as he landed in Natal. The gendered place within the system of such overlooked individual port women (some of them now only represented in a picaresque manner now) deserves attention. It is surely the case that the presence of women as speakers and as foci in the world of port studies must lead, at last, to their greater presence in the world of transport studies, mobilities studies and maritime history too. It was this summer, nine decades ago, that this ex-Secretary of the Women’s Social and Political Union found her dream could not be realised.
In researching for a new book about the history of women at sea I’ve found that gendered notions of suitable careers for women blocked, and continued to block, their logical next career stages.
Her story matters because it’s a previously unknown example of women’s struggle to work at sea.
Throughout the first years after WW1 Jessie (1987-1985) was figuring out a way to fund her passionate interest in science, especially the very new wireless science.
Although a fairly unusual interest for women, many women, including New York suffragettes, were radio hams. When Jessie told Mrs Pankhurst of her dream, the WSPU leader pointed out ‘My dear child, you need unlimited means to pursue science.’ Lacking money, Jessie thought about it, took advice from Marie Curie amongst others, and decided to become a marine wireless operator at sea. At that time the pioneering ‘Marconi men’ who sailed the seas pounding out messages in Morse were often in the media.
In her notes for her autobiography Jessie recorded ‘I reasoned thus: women have never been wireless operators at sea.
In fact, with her sisters’ financial help, Jessie went to the new North Wales Wireless College. Events this summer exactly nine decades ago showed Jessie that, like her wartime predecessors (about whom she seemingly had not heard) would not be allowed to operate at sea. The problem was partly ‘that it was thought impracticable for a woman to hold this position at sea’. One of the very top gatekeepers, Sir Godfrey Isaacs, Managing Director of Marconi’s Wireless Telegraphy Company, put her application letters in the bin.
A marked but small improvement in the window was created after the 1970s equality legislation. The Soviet Union is thought to have many seagoing ROs and other women officers doing technical work in WW2. Are women equally committed as their male counterparts to nation-state ideology and construct?

As is usual with Women’s History Network conferences, independent scholars played a significant part, with a number of presentations during the conference. When the captured ship was taken to Zeebrugge then Bruges their blue uniforms with brass buttons caused a confusion about identity. During Edith’s incarceration there was a high-profile publicity campaign and diplomatic initiatives to free the women. Phil McGraw that explores the troubled relationships of four couples who agree to live together under one roof for seven days of in-depth counseling to try to save their marriages. Led by husband-and-wife marriage coaches Will Craig and Laurie Gerber, the couples take part in a series of exercises that include individual and group therapy sessions all aimed at salvaging their troubled unions. Executive producers are Jay McGraw, Carla Pennington, Phil McGraw, Eugene Young and Jay Bienstock. These are the third group of abstracts related to Britain and the First World War to be published on the blog. This mushrooming working-class school population necessitated a new, focused approach from government, educationalists and pressure groups towards mass elementary curricula. She studying Britain’s Experience of Empire, 1870-1939, her doctoral research addressing the role of the British Empire in development of the British school system and British curricula. This applies to all modern war but especially to what many see as the first truly ‘modern’ war, the Great War.
Further, how did everyday life on local home fronts challenge or reinforce existing gender relations? Her publications cover many aspects of the gendering of politics (locally, nationally and transnationally) particularly from the 1880s to 1939, including Equivocal Feminists (1996) and Socialist Women (2002)(with June Hannam). When the 1914-1918 war broke out, Emmeline Pankhurst’s rhetoric and actions in unreservedly ‘voting’ to supporting the war and the war effort met with approval and disapproval not only in Britain. They spoke out strongly against war, for peace, and for men to exercise their right of conscientious objection. State police were admonished to utilise federal laws against demonstrators, with women (Adele Pankhurst, Jennie Baines and Alice Suter) being the first to be charged under these regulations.
It confirms that exploration of the reasons for women to take a stand that put them at odds not only with government but with women who sided with the war effort is esential for undertanding women’s activism during wartime. They had come from Dublin, and Mary became a stalwart in the labour movement in Manchester.
She was an active member and leader of campaigns to increase union membership and like many women on the Left at the time visited the Soviet Union on a trade union delegation. These include the Bedroom tax, the privatisation of the National Health Service, zero hours contacts, fracking, the slashing of welfare benefits and the imposition of austerity measures which bear most profoundly on those least able to survive them.
The Mary Quaile Club’s first meeting is scheduled for 15 February 2014 in Salford. The Club’s aim is to hold regular discussions on working class history and its links with contemporary political issues confronting working people in Tory Britain. Paula is the author of Ellen Wilkinson, from Red Suffragist to Government Minister, Pluto Press.
She was a Manchester City councillor for a short time before becoming a Labour MP for Middlesbrough and later Jarrow. In 1936 she took part in the Jarrow Crusade, a march of the   unemployed to London. I was born into a working-class home, and I had to fight my own way through to the University.
He will outline what is happening at the moment and explain what people can do to save the NHS from being taken over by the private   sector. However, the establishment of military camps gave rise to social problems and crime increased, so the General Officer Commanding, Major General F. That’s why women, who’ve traditionally been excluded from full access to ships, are far more present in port life than in maritime life, and in representations of that past. And it’s right that they were distinctly present in papers (though not in half the papers). Indeed it was noticeable that the two speakers on women in shipbuilding, Britain’s Rosie the Riveters, were male. Interestingly, Swann found that (according to oral testimony) none of  the WW2  women knew they had WW1 predecessors.
Some were associated with the extensive cocaine dealing which was imported from France and used more widely in Barcelona than in any French city. Tytti Steel found that in 1940s and 50s Helsinki and Kotka some port women had a man on every ship.
No ring would have meant difficulties with dockyard gatekeepers as the women tried to access the vessels. Nor do we know much about them as regulators of migration and port morals, say as wives of officials or as dockside missionaries . But Hannah Hagmark was able to discuss women’s iconic status as wives of men from the Aland Islands fishing industry.
There were too many obstacles for women, even those as determined as Jessie Kenney, to get past. It shows that even a great warrior of the suffrage movement, fresh from partially winning the vote five years earlier, could not get work in a ‘boy’s toys’ job. It would allow her earn a living, travel, and to study the latest advancements in wireless science. This new science had led in 1910 to the spectacular on-board apprehension of murderer Dr Crippen and played a key role in the iconic sinking of the Titanic in 1912. She took her course, and in April 1923 passed her First Class Certificate in Wireless Telegraphy and her Valve Certificate.
Someone took a fountain pen and crossed out words such as ‘he’ and replaced them with ‘she’ on her Post Master General’s First Class Certificate of Proficiency. In working with Willie Williamson, the archivist for the Radio Officers’ Association, I’ve discovered that at least 38 women marine radio operators qualified in 1916-1917.
Partly it was that and men, including ex-servicemen, were being prioritised in the jobs market in this very depressed period. She heard afterwards that ‘he had made up his mind he was having no women wireless operators’. Shipping companies found it unthinkable that women, other than nurses, should become officers on ships.
She sailed for ten years with Furness and Orient line, and kept her dream fed by reading science and philosophy books when she could, as the lists in her diaries show. How I had longed for the peace and solitude of the wireless cabin where after my labours I could study in peace.’ She wasn’t even accepted in WW2.

But the changes in British shipping in the 1980s meant fewer British ROs, never mind female ROs, sailed. Or do women adhere to notions of nation-state so as to conform to expectations of nationhood, patriotism and the divisions that can be so much a part of states and statehood?
The National Vigilance Association, the Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women, and the British Fight Against Sex Trafficking c.
These stewardesses were on the Great Eastern Railway ferry Brussels caring for Belgian refugees, after leaving the Hook of Holland for Britain. As well as raising questions and a stimulus to Conference sessions, their publication here provides an opportunty for readers to engage.
A need arose to prepare pupils for their role as future working-class citizens of the Empire, to which the Board of Education responded with prescriptive curricula differentiated by both age and gender. Her thesis will contribute to current scholarship and debate that has tended to challenge and extend traditional views of Britons’ experience of empire.
However, if we change our focus to the everyday, the banal and often forgotten details of daily life, we may find that continuities are as important as changes.
They lobbied against proposals for compulsory enlistment, demonstrating, collecting signatures and presenting petitions. When state police did not comply with the wish of federal authorities, a federal police force was created.
That women were a particular target of repression indicates the fear held by the establishment of women as renegades.
She led a cafe waitresses’ strike, going on to work as an organizer for the Manchester and Salford Women’s Trades Union Council.
She spoke often at rallies and public meetings, and during the General Strike in May 1926 was seen frequently and heard often speaking at rallies in London, Manchester and other parts of the country. The Mary Quale Club is designed to provide a meeting place for all who would engage with discussions on history and politics, yet are not presently being reached. In 1945  the Labour party  won a landslide   victory and set up the NHS and welfare State.  Ellen became Minister of Education.
The first of those guiding principles was to see that no boy or girl is debarred by lack of means … the second one was that we should remove from education those class distinctions which are the negation of democracy. And 90 years ago this April, Jessie Kenney, a key figure in the suffrage movement, fulfilled the first stage of her next dream. And more broadly, it shows how the shipping industry wasted the potential contribution of one, talented, half of the population. But they didn’t sail, it seems, not even on coastal minesweepers (which were usually converted fishing boats and may well have been manned by their fathers and brothers). Victoria Drummond, who was to become the first female ship’s engineer, was fighting a similar battle at that time.
Women did not sail as radio operators on British ships until the 1960s, and then only rarely. Canada had at least 22 women ROs in WW2, although they were only allowed to work on Scandinavian ships, where female operators were already readily accepted. These were questions underlying presentations at the Women’s History Network annual conference, held at Cardiff University from 7-9 September 2012. She spoke of the way in which the early 20th century suffrage movement lionised and elevated the struggles and gains of British women, yet passed over or downplayed those of equally active and committed women elsewhere, providing the instance of one of her own countrywomen. At the end of the week, each twosome will have to decide whether recommit and stay together and or break up and go their separate ways. By the outbreak of the Great War, however, the content and pedagogy of these curricula were often contested by both professional and political groups; especially as the perceived needs of Britain and the Empire changed in the face of new imperial and colonial challenges. Locating educational development within an imperial trajectory will necessitate application of an inter-disciplinary approach. They demonstrated against the export of bread for troops in Europe, arguing that wheat shortages led to rising bread prices, so taking this staple out of the reach of the ordinary people, particularly the working class. Secret police followed the women and documented their activities in records now held in Australian archives.
She spoke at hundreds of factory gate meetings in both the East End of London and Manchester;  she never betrayed any sign of fear when faced with hostility. Religion did arise for her, in a question whether Jewishness may have played a part in the overlooking of her principal protagonist, who held no official positions in the suffrage movement organisations to which she belonged.
Patriotic organisations increasingly regarded the schools as a ‘front’ in the years leading up to and during the Great War through which to promote their own interests and utilised the elementary curricula as a site for their wartime propaganda. Everyday life had to go on, despite the challenges, privations and sorrows of this new kind of ‘total’ war. She was a part of the Women’s Movement that split with women (like Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst) who believed the war effort should be supported and downed their suffragette credentials to do so.
Her warmth and loveable personality won for her many friends in the labour and trade union movement. Not addressed by the presentations, it remains an issue for historical and cultural exploration and analysis.
Yet it is clear that whichever combatant nation one looks at, there was a diversity of experience on the home front dependent on place – hence local home fronts – but also on class, on age, and particularly on gender. New studies have revealed that couples in stressful marriages are physically less healthy than couples in happy marriages.
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