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Published 08.04.2014 | Author : admin | Category : What Do Women Want In A Man

Since 2003, the technology has been successfully used in the IZUMI pilot plant operated by JGC, the licensee of Arkenol for Japan and SE Asia, to produce ethanol for the Japanese transportation fuel market. Arkenol has developed significant proprietary improvements to a well known conversion technology known as concentrated acid hydrolysis such that the process is ready for commercial implementation. Arkenol determined that the concentrated acid hydrolysis process could be made economically viable through the use of new technology, modern control methods, and newer materials of construction.
To demonstrate the efficacy of the technology, Arkenol has constructed and operated a pilot plant near its Southern California offices for roughly five years. A lager pilot facility the 21,500 gallon per year fully integrated Izumi (Izumi is a town located on the southern tip of Japan) pilot plant, using waste wood chips as feedstock, has been operational since 2002. Sulfuric acid recovery is over 97% with reconcentration of the 18% dilute acid to 75% in continuous use since 2003.
A simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic separation unit, using small plastic beads, is used to separate the acid fraction from the sugars.
Uses first commercial membrane distillation and purification system supplied by Mitsui with significant operating cost savings over conventional (molecular sieve) technology. If there is no power plant present from which to obtain steam, the production facility would use natural gas or lignin as fuel for its own boilers.
Incoming biomass feedstocks are cleaned and ground to reduce the particle size for the process equipment. The remaining acid-sugar solution is separated into its acid and sugar components by means of an Arkenol-developed technology that uses commercially available ion exchange resins to separate the components without diluting the sugar.
In an ethanol production plant, naturally-occurring yeast, which Arkenol has been specifically cultured by a proprietary method to ferment the mixed sugar stream, is mixed with nutrients and added to the sugar solution where it efficiently converts both the C6 and C5 sugars to fermentation beer (an ethanol, yeast and water mixture) and carbon dioxide.
Arkenol is in final development of its first commercial-scale biorefinery, a combined 4 million gallon per year ethanol production and 40,000 metric ton per year citric acid facility in Sacramento, California the feedstock being cellulosic woody waste and agricultural waste.
The project has already secured through BlueFire Ethanol, Inc., the project development and operation vehicle, long-term feedstock supplies from a major American solid waste treatment and disposal company under a Letter of Intent, as well as sale of the full amount of ethanol product to a domestic retailer under a long-term commitment. JGC Corporation will do the process design development for this first cellulosic bio-ethanol production project. The process design package is due in the 3rd Q of 2006, start of engineering and construction will start in the 1st Q of 2007 and commercial operation is to start in the 1st Q of 2009. A standalone plant would use lignin or natural gas to fire its boilers and therefore will require air permits for the boiler exhaust.
Arkenol believes that it is necessary to compete in commodity markets with its current capital and operations cost structure. BlueFire Ethanol Inc intends to build a multinational company that leads the world in producing biobased transportation fuels.
And this process can likely be used to make butanol, which is much more suitable for gasoline engines as a total replacement. Even at this lower cost the liquid fuel will still be burned, which means that CO 2 will still cause global climate change even if all oil consumption were replaced by cellulosic feedstock.
And without signifigant new sources of biomass, like algae from solar collectors, water and land shortages will severly limit the percentage of oil replaced by this process. And last but not least, the so called waste product cellulose will not go back into the soil and sequester carbon.
Reducing the amount of liquid fuel that is needed through renewable electric transportation could make this the process that wins out though, once only a small percentage, say 10% of the present liquid fuel we use is needed.
As far as abundance of feedstock, between waste plant material, switchgrass, and whatever else is deemed economically useable, I don't think that will be an issue. AN ENTIRE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS needs to be done here on these cellulosic-ethanol processes - because sometimes suprises do come up!
I recently was previlaged to see some (as yet unpublished research - and I do recall at least one such biomass example was SIGNIFICANTLY carbon (emission) negative. Do you mean that the bio-fuel system is carbon-negative by itself (not counting the carbon-positive generation system which supplies its process heat), or that the system as a whole (generation and fuel production) becomes carbon-negative?
The research is a chemico-economic FEASIBLITY analysis and takes into account many parameters including effects of carbon trading etc. BUT THE AUTHOR OF THE RESEARCH RIGHTLY MENTIONS ALL THE VARIABLES IN THIS - electricty price - therefore becomes a variable. Maybe a new measure of carbon neutrality needs to be introduced to clear up these misconceptions? For instance: Renewable electricity from wind or solar charging a battery powered electric vehicle produces no CO 2. Ethanol burned in an internal combustion vehicle does release CO 2 that was captured by crops through photosynthesis (This disregards fossil fuel inputs to the crop and fuel production).
Behind all the debate looms the huge tax dollar giveaway plan for agri bizz fuel farming, buying votes, science, and legislators. This is what the BlueFire Ethanol - Arkenol process mainly looks at if you read the article and Arkenol's PDF file presentation on their Japanese pilot plant. Both are interesting characters in this area of research (MEMBRANE REACTOR TECHNOLOGY AND NOVEL REACTOR DESIGN). One of the beauties of the DCFC is that it doesn't inherently lose efficiency as it gets smaller. A system built around carbonization, fermentation of off-gas and feeding algae on the CO2 operates on a potentially very small scale, yields both solid and liquid fuel, can store both indefinitely or use the solid product for sequestration, and can sell the liquid for either fuel or chemical synthesis.  Field-to-terminals efficiency of the charcoal alone could hit 40%, ignoring any improvements from the algae side. I am personally involved in this research and have been to the Izumi (Japan) site several times. I can't say for sure if the strong acid method of bio-ethanol is more economic than the enzyme method, but at least there is a working strong acid demonstration plant that is actually producing ethanol. Similar problems will occur with cellulose that have happened with the first generation agrofuels.
Also, as been brought up here - switching to plug-in hybrids, and a clean electrified transportation system is the only real solution so far.

Why spend all this money in these technologies when we (at least some of us) already know what needs to happen? Can you help me out on my project on "Production Of Biodiesel" which i got as a part of the requirement for the completion of my degree??
Burn PowerPoint files to DVD or Blu-ray Disc, and convert PPT files to video of any format. Under Insert tab  a new slide, click on the new YouTube add-in button,  and follow the wizard prompts. A bumblebee cannot fly unless her flight muscles are at 30 oC, so she has to brave the cold weather to feed or else she will sink into torpor and never wake up. The image below is a summary of the yearly lifecycle of a bumblebee colony, and was taken from the book Bumblebees by Prys-Jones and Corbet. At this stage it is only the queen who lays eggs, and all the eggs she lays are fertilized, and so will develop into females (workers). PowerPoint acts as an effective visual aid in both commercial and educational presentations.
Make your ending short and precise as it helps the audience to concentrate on the message you want to deliver.
Always remember that your main motive is to serve the purpose of the presentation and wrapping up is the best possible way to influence the audience. Your final slide can include a single sentence defining your goal or an image that symbolizes your theme.
Do not tuck new ideas into your conclusion as it may confuse people obscuring your original message. Increasingly, expensive oil, coal and global warming are causing an energy revolution by requiring fossil fuels to be supplemented by alternative energy sources and by requiring changes in lifestyle. Over the last 10 years, the initial testing on a vast array of potential feedstock has been completed both in the U.S. The pilot facility is rated at a nominal 1 ton per day biomass throughput, assuming a 24 hour, 3 shift operating schedule. SMB's are used in the sugar industry for glucose-sucrose separation and separating sugar from molasses. These unit operations require a series of material and energy inputs to produce the primary products of fermentation and the resultant by-products. The pretreated material is then dried to a moisture content consistent with the acid concentration requirements for decrystallization (separation of the cellulose and hemicellulose from the lignin), then hydrolyzed (degrading the chemical bonds of the cellulose) to produce hexose and pentose sugars at the high concentrations necessary for commercial fermentation. The separated sulfuric acid is recirculated and reconcentrated to the level required by the decrystallization and hydrolysis steps.
The yeast culture is separated from the fermentation beer by a centrifuge and returned to the fermentation tanks for reuse. Water usage would be minimal because of complete recycling of the water contained in the incoming materials.
The plant is designed on a zero-discharge basis and normally uses public sewers only for sanitary purposes. Note that a plant sited next to a co-generation facility and using steam from the power plant would have no combustion emissions whatsoever. In engineering the Arkenol biorefinery, a focus on cost control has resulted in significant reductions in the overall cost of a facility.
Arkenol is a technology and project development company whose focus is the construction and operation of biorefineries on a worldwide basis to produce a variety of biobased chemicals and transportation fuels. Today it is globally recognized as a world leading engineering contractor with many very large LNG and refinery projects throughout the world. Its business will encompass development activities leading to the construction and long-term operation of production facilities while maintaining technological advantage of the process technology and all its improvements. They have been going at it for a long time and the timing of this announcement is near perfect.
Amount of CO2 generated in the process to convert x quantity of feedstock to Y quantity of biofuel. The amount of energy required in real terms is coming down in ACTUALLY CREATING THE ETHANOL.
Even if this is later and that in the meantime we use the fuel in these via reforming catalysts in HYBRID OR ELECTRIC VEHICLES (FUEL CELLS). One must not get too focused in - and always look for sister applications of the same technology.
I do agree - I've read numerous relevant articles about the advantages of pyrolysis and gasification technologies in biomass. There are also the dangers of the GE enzymes, which in one study (I have source) the GE microbes created alcohol around the root system and killed all plants.
This would include using trains more, trucks less, and lots of redesigning our logistical systems. Internal combustion is greatly inefficient in itself, then you have all the inefficiencies of agrofuels. Along with the unique function of custom logo of the software, you can add a distinctive love logo into the letter and save it onto DVD as a sweet memory. She continues feeding and sheltering at night near the food plants in nooks and crannies for a few weeks until her body signals her that it is time to find a nest site.
Each species has its own nesting preferences, and more about these can be found on the individual species pages.It is unfortunate that tidy gardeners often destroy what a queen would regard as a highly desirable residence.
In the early days of the nest it is estimated that a Bombus terrestris queen may have to visit as many as 6000 flowers per day in order to get enough nectar to maintain the heat needed to brood her eggs. The larva usually have 13 segments with a pair of spiracles (air holes) in each segment (see below).

This template has a nice background design for anniversary presentations and you can easily change the anniversary number using PowerPoint. Our templates can be used in personal and commercial presentations but attribution is required.
So in order to make your last impression a lasting one, you need to be very clear about what you want to convey to your listeners.
While drawing conclusion with the help of PowerPoint presentation, it is important to match it up with your basic theme. Supporting your oral speech with PPT would enable the audience to understand your information in a better way. A successful presentation consists of an effective introduction, body and a relevant ending. So research more to gather accurate information so as to draw an apposite conclusion in a way reinforcing your key message.
They use the this process for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW), rice and wheat straws, wood waste and other agricultural residues to ethanol.
During normal operation, 1 shift per day is sufficient for feedstock studies, design trials, and normal maintenance.
The plant is funded by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of the Japanese Government under a five year contract ending in 2007.
Insoluble materials, principally the lignin portion of the biomass input, are separated from the hydrolyzate by filtering and pressing and further processed into fuel or other beneficial uses. Ethanol is separated from the now clear fermentation beer by conventional distillation technology, dehydrated to 200 proof with conventional molecular sieve technology, and denatured with unleaded gasoline to produce the final fuel-grade ethanol product.
Arkenol engineers have already identified process blocks where additional capital and O&M reductions are possible with future operating experience.
The company was formed in 1992 as an affiliate of ARK Energy, a successful developer of independent power production facilities. Nippon Oil Corporation Group selected JGC as the main contractor for Japans first IGCC power generation project. In doing so, BlueFire expects to grow the company's revenues to over $10 billion per year domestically. This relationship allows him to profit from BFRE even if it does not make any profits while he collects payments, royalties and fees associated with the commercialization and production of ethanol using Arkenol's technology.
Most research and funding is going into GE microbes and plants as this will be the only foreseeable way for this to be cost effective. The picture gets much much worse when you see how these policies, and that of the EU effect the 3rd world resources. Fill the romance in your PowerPoint-made story, and show how much you care your baby by recording it on your love DVD. Newly emerged queens eat both nectar and pollen, and it is the pollen that helps her ovaries develop. The antennae are nothing more than buds, they have no eyes or legs, and very limited powers of movement. Their use of the Arkenol Technology positions it as the only cellulose-to-ethanol company worldwide with demonstrated production of ethanol from these materials. BlueFire has completed the arrangement of the major commitments necessary to proceed with final development of its first commercial facility which will be sited in California. The facility was constructed using readily available pilot equipment using no exotic materials.
At this point the process has produced a clean stream of mixed sugars (both C6 and C5) for fermentation.
The still bottoms, containing principally water and unfermented pentose sugar, is returned to the process for economic water use and for further conversion of the pentose sugars. In a words first JGC was responsible for aspects of the project, engineering, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 430,000KW plant which started up in 2003. You read something like this, and wonder what the hell the rest of the market is waiting for. Although he has invested a lot of equity into both BFRE and Arkenol, he stands to gain the most from the exclusive licencing agreement between the two companies.
Of course, switchgrass growers will initially claim they won't use fertilizer, but they will to increase their yields.
What will most likely happen, as it has historical precedence, is they will use dirty MSW as they can get paid for taking that in as a feedstock. So by examining the faeces in the cocoon the pollen husks can be identified to show which flower species the adult bumblebees have been foraging from.
It is thought that fertilized larvae develop into queens and not workers when the queen stops secreting a certain pheromone. They have an exclusive, North American license of the technology for use in the production of ethanol for the transportation fuel market. Hazardous wastes, toxics, and heavy metals will then be present in the fuel, which will then be burned. These larvae destined to be queens are fed more frequently and for longer than larvae destined to be workers. This releases CO2 from dying soil microbes and the earth, not just the sequestered carbon from the atmosphere. This means the end of their gut is closed, so all the waste material remains inside the larva.

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