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Published 23.12.2014 | Author : admin | Category : What A Man Wants From A Woman

Swiss artist Hans "Ruedi" Giger has died from injuries related to a fall he suffered at his home. If you’re at all a fan of modern science fiction, you’ve encountered the man’s work, possibly without even realizing it. Giger reportedly did not enjoy most of the work he did on movies—he was first and foremost a painter and a sculptor, and he found working under deadline for movie production studios frustrating and unsatisfying. Giger was already a well-established artist in his own right when he was approached by auteur director Alejandro Jodorowsky in 1973 to participate in preproduction work on Jodorowsky’s adaptation of Frank Herbert’s Dune. However, directly because of the failed project, Giger was hired a few years later by Ridley Scott to work on Alien, a film that involved a number of other Dune alums, including scriptwriter Dan O’Bannon. Giger was given tremendous creative freedom on Alien, even temporarily relocating from Zurich to London during the film’s production to hand-sculpt and paint his designs off of the canvas and onto the screen.
Nonetheless, Alien won Giger an Academy Award for Visual Effects and permanently lodged his distinct style in the mind of the movie-going public. Giger provided visual design assistance to a score of additional movies, sending designs to 20th Century Fox during Alien 3’s tortured development and providing a huge amount of design work for 1995’s Species, but continued to find interacting with Hollywood difficult and frustrating. Throughout his life, the artist suffered from persistent night terrors, and has said that most of his art is directly or indirectly influenced by the things he saw when he closed his eyes.
Giger was asked to contribute creature designs to 1992's Alien 3, and he did a large number of sketches on potential new alien forms (as well as a number of other elements). The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Conde Nast. According to the OCP framework, companies that have innovative culturesinnovative culturesCultures that are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas.
Companies with aggressive culturesaggressive culturesCultures that value competitiveness and outperforming competitors.
Microsoft, the company that Bill Gates co-founded, has been described as having an aggressive culture. The OCP framework describes outcome-oriented culturesoutcome-oriented culturesCultures that emphasize achievement, results, and action. People-oriented culturespeople-oriented culturesCultures that value fairness, supportiveness, and respecting individual rights. Companies with a team-oriented cultureteam-oriented culturesCultures that are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among employees.
The growth in the number of passengers flying with Southwest Airlines from 1973 until 2007 when Southwest surpassed American Airlines as the most flown U.S. Organizations with a detail-oriented culturedetail-oriented culturesCultures that emphasize precision and paying attention to details. It is important to realize that a strong culture may act as an asset or a liability for the organization, depending on the types of values that are shared. Walt Disney created a strong culture at his company that has evolved since its founding in 1923. So far, we have assumed that a company has a single culture that is shared throughout the organization. Sometimes, a subculture may take the form of a counterculturecountercultureShared values and beliefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture.. Culture can be understood in terms of seven different culture dimensions, depending on what is most emphasized within the organization. Out of the culture dimensions described, which dimension do you think would lead to higher levels of employee satisfaction and retention? Giger—whose surname is pronounced with a long "e," like "gee-ger"—most famously designed the monster from Ridley Scott’s Alien, but his contributions to that film were neither the beginning nor the end of a tremendously influential Hollywood career spanning 40 years.
He described his work as "biomechanical"—most typically monochromatic, disquieting sets of images that blended the living and the mechanical together, often with sexual or fetishistic overtones. Giger did a number of designs for the film, most notably the Harkonnen world of Giedi Prime, but his first introduction to Hollywood was ultimately a failure–after a few years and a few million dollars, production on Jodorowsky’s Dune spectacularly imploded, leaving behind some fantastic stories and an enduring legacy, but no movie.
Alien was already in heavy preproduction and featured art by the likes of Ron Cobb, Chris Foss, and Moebius (Jean Giraud)—Foss and Moebius had contributed significantly to Dune as well. However, the pressures of filmmaking and the inevitable compromises necessary to transform airbrushed art into soundstage-sized set pieces greatly frustrated Giger. Alien itself became a benchmark in science fiction and horror, and Giger’s work on the film tapped into something primal and terrifying; the creature in the film is itself an iconic design, mixing together unsettling pseudo-sexual visual cues together with good old-fashioned scary grossness.

However, his collaborations weren’t limited to the screen—he also worked with musicians and recording artists on album covers and sculptures and other projects, and contributed architectural designs to several Giger-themed bars. Over the past decades, the man’s nightmares have helped shape the design direction of movies and television and video games; though he paid a high price for his visions, there are few other artists who have so completely altered the collective unconscious of the world.
However, his work was eventually discarded during the movie's infamously tortured development process.
Giger suffered throughout his life from night terrors and used those visions as the basis for most of his work; this image (with its odd mix of the macabre and the absurd) shows the artist's own mixed feelings about inspiration and the cost of creation. Even though culture may not be immediately observable, identifying a set of values that might be used to describe an organizationa€™s culture helps us identify, measure, and manage culture more effectively. In an organization where certain values are widely shared, if the organization decides to adopt a different set of values, unlearning the old values and learning the new ones will be a challenge because employees will need to adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, and responding to critical events.
During mergers and acquisitions, companies inevitably experience a clash of cultures, as well as a clash of structures and operating systems.
Defined as shared values and beliefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture,[367] countercultures are often shaped around a charismatic leader. For example, innovative cultures are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas, while stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic.
Do you think that different cultures are more or less effective at different points in time and in different industries? He developed this trademark style during the mid-1960s while studying design at the School of Commercial Art in Zurich, first working in oils on canvas. Giger was brought on by Scott after O’Bannon introduced the director to Giger’s work, and Giger’s designs displaced all other preproduction art for the titular monster. Although the results on screen shocked and stunned audiences, Giger was ultimately unsatisfied that the movie’s visuals never quite matched the biomechanical hell he saw in his mind.
This image heavily influenced the final look of the eponymous alien in Ridley Scott's 1979 film.
Giger's completed airbrush painting of the fossilized pilot discovered by the Nostromo's crew in Alien.
In an early version of the Alien script, the human protagonists (then crewing a ship named either the Snark or the Leviathan, depending on how far back one goes) find the alien eggs not in a derelict ship, but instead in a large temple-like structure. Giger's concept of the "temple" or "silo" in which the alien's eggs were originally to be discovered.
These companies are characterized by a flat hierarchy and titles and other status distinctions tend to be downplayed. When the environment is stable and certain, these cultures may help the organization to be effective by providing stable and constant levels of output.[354] These cultures prevent quick action and, as a result, may be a misfit to a changing and dynamic environment. For example, Southwest Airlines facilitates a team-oriented culture by cross-training its employees so that they are capable of helping one another when needed. While price has played a role in this, their emphasis on service has been a key piece of their culture and competitive advantage. Such a culture gives a competitive advantage to companies in the hospitality industry by helping them differentiate themselves from others.
The stronger a companya€™s culture, the more likely it is to affect the way employees think and behave. If this value system matches the organizational environment, the company may perform well and outperform its competitors. For example, Home Depot had a decentralized, autonomous culture where many business decisions were made using a€?gut feelinga€? while ignoring the available data. For example, people working on the sales floor may experience a different culture from that experienced by people working in the warehouse. For example, within a largely bureaucratic organization, an enclave of innovativeness and risk taking may emerge within a single department. Strong cultures can be an asset or liability for an organization but can be challenging to change. Later, he moved on to working freehand with an airbrush—the style of painting with which he is most solidly identified.
The company has faced a number of antitrust lawsuits and disputes with competitors over the years. Having a culture emphasizing sales performance, Best Buy tallies revenues and other relevant figures daily by department.

The company pays employees above minimum wage, offers health care and tuition reimbursement benefits to its part-time as well as full-time employees, and has creative perks such as weekly free coffee for all associates. For example, Four Seasons and Ritz Carlton are among hotels who keep records of all customer requests such as which newspaper the guest prefers or what type of pillow the customer uses. When Robert Nardelli became CEO of the company in 2000, he decided to change its culture starting with centralizing many of the decisions that were previously left to individual stores. For example, during the merger of Daimler-Benz with Chrysler to create DaimlerChrysler, the differing strong cultures of each company acted as a barrier to effective integration.
Cultures that emerge within different departments, branches, or geographic locations are called subculturessubcultureA set of values unique to a limited cross section of the organization..
A counterculture may be tolerated by the organization as long as it is bringing in results and contributing positively to the effectiveness of the organization. Multiple cultures may coexist in a single organization in the form of subcultures and countercultures. Effect of organizational cultures on mergers and acquisitions: The case of DaimlerChrysler. In the private sector, Kraft Foods is an example of a company with centralized decision making and rule orientation that suffered as a result of the culture-environment mismatch.[355] Its bureaucratic culture is blamed for killing good ideas in early stages and preventing the company from innovating. This information is put into a computer system and used to provide better service to returning customers. However, a strong outcome-oriented culture coupled with unethical behaviors and an obsession with quantitative performance indicators may be detrimental to an organizationa€™s effectiveness. This initiative met with substantial resistance, and many high-level employees left during Nardellia€™s first year. Daimler had a strong engineering culture that was more hierarchical and emphasized routinely working long hours.
Subcultures may arise from the personal characteristics of employees and managers, as well as the different conditions under which work is performed. Assessing the relationship between industry characteristics and organizational culture: How different can you be? Gore & Associates is a company with innovative products such as GORE-TEXA® (the breathable fabric that is windproof and waterproof), Glade dental floss, and Elixir guitar strings, earning the company the distinction as the most innovative company in the United States by Fast Company magazine in 2004. In these companies, it is more common to see rewards tied to performance indicators as opposed to seniority or loyalty.
Any requests hotel employees receive, as well as overhear, might be entered into the database to serve customers better. Despite getting financial results such as doubling the sales of the company, many of the changes he made were criticized. Daimler employees were used to being part of an elite organization, evidenced by flying first class on all business trips. In addition to understanding the broader organizationa€™s values, managers will need to make an effort to understand subculture values to see their effect on workforce behavior and attitudes. In some cases, this may lead to actions that would take away the autonomy of the managers and eliminate the counterculture.
However, Chrysler had a sales culture where employees and managers were used to autonomy, working shorter hours, and adhering to budget limits that meant only the elite flew first class. Gore consistently manages to innovate and capture the majority of market share in a wide variety of industries, in large part because of its unique culture.
In this company, employees do not have bosses in the traditional sense, and risk taking is encouraged by celebrating failures as well as successes.[348] Companies such as W. People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit.
Gore, Genentech, and Google also encourage their employees to take risks by allowing engineers to devote 20% of their time to projects of their own choosing.

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