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Abiotic and Biotic Stress Journal (Absjournal) (ISSN: 2491-3901) publishes articles about all research aspects and techniques that aim to understand and improve the molecular and genetic mechanisms of plant responses and adaptation to all environmental stresses and climate changes. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original S&F work is properly cited. The Only Legal Publishing House include Case Laws, Judgments, Statutes, Notifications, Circulars, Notices, Reports, Digests, Acts, Bills, Rules, Ordinances, Press Notes, Treaties, Forms, Law Articles, Legal News, Press Releases, State Laws, Industry Laws, Arbitration, Banking Laws, Company Laws, Consumer Protection, Criminal Laws, Employment Laws, Human Rights, Income Tax, Indirect Tax, Intellectual Properties, Sales Tax, SC Judgments, Trade Laws, Student Laws, Education Laws, Law Newsletters, Court Laws, Civil Laws, FAQs, Exims, Policies, Banking, Constitutions, Corporate Laws, Customs, Law Orders, SC Cases, Securities Laws, Telecom, Commentary, Guidelines, Regulations, Schemes, DTAA, Legal Agreements, Circulars, Judicial Interventions, Jurisdictions, SEBI, Legal Documents, Notices, CLB, TRAI Notifications, CIT, DCIT, Legal Amendments, Free Judgments, Legal Appeals, Law Databases, Online Law Databases, Legal Researches, Legal News, Legal Technologies, Law Counsels, Labour Laws, Legal Networks, Law Networks, Law Careers, Legal Careers, Commercial Laws, Legal Professionals, Legal Services, India Codes, Bareacts, Legal Analysis, Indian Laws, International Laws, Cyberspace Laws, Indian Courts, Supreme Court of India, Caselaws, Law Portals, Legal portals, Law and Justice, India Corporate Laws, India Property Laws, Company Laws, Bombay Bar Association, Supreme Court Cases, Labor Laws, National Laws, Law Finders, Companies Act, Law Journals, National Legal News, Regional Legal News, Minority Laws, IP Laws, Law Firms, Petitions, Discussions, Rights, Government, Govt, Collections, Contempt, Code of Conduct on all Subjects, Modules.
Legal Databases of Andhra pradesh, arunachal pradesh, assam, bihar, chandigarh, chhattisgarh, delhi, goa, Gujarat, haryana, himachal pradesh, jammu and Kashmir, jharkhand, Karnataka, kerala, Madhya pradesh, maharastra, manipur, meghalaya, nagaland, orissa, pondicherry, Punjab, rajasthan, sikkim, tamil nadu, tripura, uttar pradesh, uttaranchal, west Bengal, guahati, Bombay, Chennai, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Madras, Pune, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Bhopal, MP, Aurangabad, Calcutta, Nainital. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractSoils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils.
Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.1. IntroductionAlthough heavy metals are naturally present in the soil, geologic and anthropogenic activities increase the concentration of these elements to amounts that are harmful to both plants and animals. Some of these activities include mining and smelting of metals, burning of fossil fuels, use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture, production of batteries and other metal products in industries, sewage sludge, and municipal waste disposal [1–3].Growth reduction as a result of changes in physiological and biochemical processes in plants growing on heavy metal polluted soils has been recorded [4–6].
Chua, “Lead phytoextraction from contaminated soil with high-biomass plant species,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. Most physical and chemical methods (such as encapsulation, solidification, stabilization, electrokinetics, vitrification, vapour extraction, and soil washing and flushing) are expensive and do not make the soil suitable for plant growth [7]. Bioremediation is also an economical remediation technique compared with other remediation techniques. Chatterjee, “Phytotoxicity of cobalt, chromium and copper in cauliflower,” Environmental Pollution, vol. Biological approaches employed for the remediation of heavy metal polluted soils were equally highlighted.2.
Heavy Metal Polluted SoilsHeavy metals are elements that exhibit metallic properties such as ductility, malleability, conductivity, cation stability, and ligand specificity. They are characterized by relatively high density and high relative atomic weight with an atomic number greater than 20 [2]. Some heavy metals such as Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and Zn are required in minute quantities by organisms. Other heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and As (a metalloid but generally referred to as a heavy metal) do not have any beneficial effect on organisms and are thus regarded as the “main threats” since they are very harmful to both plants and animals.Metals exist either as separate entities or in combination with other soil components. These components may include exchangeable ions sorbed on the surfaces of inorganic solids, nonexchangeable ions and insoluble inorganic metal compounds such as carbonates and phosphates, soluble metal compound or free metal ions in the soil solution, metal complex of organic materials, and metals attached to silicate minerals [7].
Availability of Cd and Zn to the roots of Thlaspi caerulescens decreased with increases in soil pH [10].
Organic matter and hydrous ferric oxide have been shown to decrease heavy metal availability through immobilization of these metals [11].
Significant positive correlations have also been recorded between heavy metals and some soil physical properties such as moisture content and water holding capacity [12].Other factors that affect the metal availability in soil include the density and type of charge in soil colloids, the degree of complexation with ligands, and the soil’s relative surface area [7, 13].
The large interface and specific surface areas provided by soil colloids help in controlling the concentration of heavy metals in natural soils. In addition, soluble concentrations of metals in polluted soils may be reduced by soil particles with high specific surface area, though this may be metal specific [7]. For instance, Mcbride and Martinez [14] reported that addition of amendment consisting of hydroxides with high reactive surface area decreased the solubility of As, Cd, Cu, Mo, and Pb while the solubility of Ni and Zn was not changed. Soil aeration, microbial activity, and mineral composition have also been shown to influence heavy metal availability in soils [15].Conversely, heavy metals may modify soil properties especially soil biological properties [16].
Monitoring changes in soil microbiological and biochemical properties after contamination can be used to evaluate the intensity of soil pollution because these methods are more sensitive and results can be obtained at a faster rate compared with monitoring soil physical and chemical properties [17]. The toxicity of these metals on microorganisms depends on a number of factors such as soil temperature, pH, clay minerals, organic matter, inorganic anions and cations, and chemical forms of the metal [16, 18, 19].There are discrepancies in studies comparing the effect of heavy metals on soil biological properties. While some researchers have recorded negative effect of heavy metals on soil biological properties [16, 17, 20], others have reported no relationship between high heavy metal concentrations and some soil (micro)biological properties [21]. Some of the inconsistencies may arise because some of these studies were conducted under laboratory conditions using artificially contaminated soils while others were carried out using soils from areas that are actually polluted in the field. Regardless of the origin of the soils used in these experiments, the fact that the effect of heavy metals on soil biological properties needs to be studied in more detail in order to fully understand the effect of these metals on the soil ecosystem remains. Further, it is advisable to use a wide range of methods (such as microbial biomass, C and N mineralization, respiration, and enzymatic activities) when studying effect of metals on soil biological properties rather than focusing on a single method since results obtained from use of different methods would be more comprehensive and conclusive.The presence of one heavy metal may affect the availability of another in the soil and hence plant. Salgare and Acharekar [22] reported that the inhibitory effect of Mn on the total amount of mineralized C was antagonized by the presence of Cd. Similarly, Cu and Zn as well as Ni and Cd have been reported to compete for the same membrane carriers in plants [23]. This implies that the interrelationship between heavy metals is quite complex; thus more research is needed in this area. Castro, “Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: phytoremediation as a potentially promising clean-up technology,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. Effect of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil on Plant GrowthThe heavy metals that are available for plant uptake are those that are present as soluble components in the soil solution or those that are easily solubilized by root exudates [26]. Although plants require certain heavy metals for their growth and upkeep, excessive amounts of these metals can become toxic to plants.
The ability of plants to accumulate essential metals equally enables them to acquire other nonessential metals [27].
As metals cannot be broken down, when concentrations within the plant exceed optimal levels, they adversely affect the plant both directly and indirectly.Some of the direct toxic effects caused by high metal concentration include inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures due to oxidative stress [28, 29].
An example of indirect toxic effect is the replacement of essential nutrients at cation exchange sites of plants [30]. Further, the negative influence heavy metals have on the growth and activities of soil microorganisms may also indirectly affect the growth of plants. For instance, a reduction in the number of beneficial soil microorganisms due to high metal concentration may lead to decrease in organic matter decomposition leading to a decline in soil nutrients. Enzyme activities useful for plant metabolism may also be hampered due to heavy metal interference with activities of soil microorganisms. These toxic effects (both direct and indirect) lead to a decline in plant growth which sometimes results in the death of plant [31].The effect of heavy metal toxicity on the growth of plants varies according to the particular heavy metal involved in the process. Gonzalez, “Sequential fractionation of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in soils from or near Donana National Park,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol.
Table 1 shows a summary of the toxic effects of specific metals on growth, biochemistry, and physiology of various plants. For metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and As which do not play any beneficial role in plant growth, adverse effects have been recorded at very low concentrations of these metals in the growth medium. Reduced tiller and panicle formation also occurred at this concentration of Hg in the soil. Harter, “Effect of soil pH on adsorption of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.
However, at higher concentrations of these metals, reductions in plant growth have been recorded.
The authors reported that there was no synergistic interaction between these heavy metals probably because the concentrations used in the experiment were too high for interactive relationship to be observed between the metals. Another study [71] examined the effect of 6 heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, and Pb) on the growth of maize. The result showed that the presence of these metals in soil reduced the growth and protein content of maize.


It was also observed in this study that the combined effect of 2 or more heavy metals was only as harmful as the effect of the most toxic heavy metal.
The researcher attributed this result to the antagonistic relationship which exists between heavy metals.It is important to note that certain plants are able to tolerate high concentration of heavy metals in their environment. Reeves, “Soil pH effects on uptake of Cd and Zn by Thlaspi caerulescens,” Plant and Soil, vol.
It is a widely accepted method of soil remediation because it is perceived to occur via natural processes. Although bioremediation is a nondisruptive method of soil remediation, it is usually time consuming and its use for the treatment of heavy metal polluted soils is sometimes affected by the climatic and geological conditions of the site to be remediated [74].Heavy metals cannot be degraded during bioremediation but can only be transformed from one organic complex or oxidation state to another.
Zhu, “Determination of free heavy metal ion concentrations in soils around a cadmium rich zinc deposit,” Geochemical Journal, vol.
Using Microbes for Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted SoilsSeveral microorganisms especially bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, and Enterobacter cloacae) have been successfully used for the reduction of Cr (VI) to the less toxic Cr (III) [77–80].
Raju, “Correlation of heavy metal contamination with soil properties of industrial areas of Mysore, Karnataka, India by cluster analysis,” International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, vol. It is assumed that the production of siderophore (Fe complexing molecules) by bacteria may have facilitated the extraction of these metals from the soil; this is because heavy metals have been reported to simulate the production of siderophore and this consequently affects their bioavailability [83]. For instance, siderophore production by Azotobacter vinelandii was increased in the presence of Zn (II) [84].
However, a very important in situ microbe assisted remediation is the microbial reduction of soluble mercuric ions Hg (II) to volatile metallic mercury and Hg (0) carried out by mercury resistant bacteria [86]. The reduced Hg (0) can easily volatilize out of the environment and subsequently be diluted in the atmosphere [87].Genetic engineering can be adopted in microbe assisted remediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Norvell, “Comparison of chelating agents as extractants for metals in diverse soil materials,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. This is made possible by the introduction of metallothionein (cysteine rich metal binding protein) from mouse on the cell surface on this organism. Although the sequestered metals remain in the soil, they are made less bioavailable and hence less harmful.
The controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms [89] and the fact that the heavy metal remains in the soil are major limitations to this approach to bioremediation.Making the soil favourable for soil microbes is one strategy employed in bioremediation of polluted soils. This process known as biostimulation involves the addition of nutrients in the form of manure or other organic amendments which serve as C source for microorganisms present in the soil. The added nutrients increase the growth and activities of microorganisms involved in the remediation process and thus this increases the efficiency of bioremediation.Although biostimulation is usually employed for the biodegradation of organic pollutants [90], it can equally be used for the remediation of heavy metal polluted soils.
Since heavy metals cannot be biodegraded, biostimulation can indirectly enhance remediation of heavy metal polluted soil through alteration of soil pH. The ability of biochar to increase soil pH unlike most other organic amendments [94] may have increased sorption of these metals, thus reducing their bioavailability for plant uptake. It is important to note that, since the characteristics of biochar vary widely depending on its method of production and the feedstock used in its production, the effect different biochar amendments will have on the availability of heavy metals in soil will also differ. Using Plants for Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted SoilsPhytoremediation is an aspect of bioremediation that uses plants for the treatment of polluted soils. It is suitable when the pollutants cover a wide area and when they are within the root zone of the plant [76]. Kelty, “Trace metal loading on water-borne soil and dust particles characterized through the use of Split-flow thin-cell fractionation,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. It involves accumulation of heavy metals in the roots and shoots of phytoremediation plants. Plants used for phytoextraction usually possess the following characteristics: rapid growth rate, high biomass, extensive root system, and ability to tolerate high amounts of heavy metals. Friedlová, “The influence of heavy metals on soil biological and chemical properties,” Soil and Water Research, vol. An important characteristic which makes hyperaccumulation possible is the tolerance of these plants to increasing concentrations of these metals (hypertolerance). Reeves and Baker [99] reported some examples of plants which have the ability to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals and hence can be used in remediation studies. Pteris vittata is an example of a hyperaccumulator that can be used for the remediation of soils polluted with As [100].
Pietramellara, “Measurement in assessing the risk of chemicals to the soil ecosystem,” in Ecotoxicology: Responses, Biomarkers and Risk Assessment, J. It is important to note that some hyperaccumulators such as certain species within the Brassica genus (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica rapa) are fast growers with high biomass [104].In most cases, plants absorb metals that are readily available in the soil solution. Although some metals are present in soluble forms for plant uptake, others occur as insoluble precipitate and are thus unavailable for plant uptake. Baath, “Effects of heavy metals in soil on microbial processes and populations (a review),” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. Addition of chelating substances prevents precipitation and metal sorption via the formation of metal chelate complexes; this subsequently increases the bioavailability of these metals [7]. Further, the addition of chelates to the soil can transport more metals into the soil solution through the dissolution of precipitated compounds and desorption of sorbed species [13]. Certain chelates are also able to translocate heavy metal into the shoots of plants [73].Marques et al.
EDTA is a synthetic chelate that is widely used not only because it is the least expensive compared with other synthetic chelates [105] but also because it has a high ability to successfully improve plant metal uptake [106–108].
Organic chelates such as citric acid and malic acid can also be used to improve phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils [109].One major disadvantage of using chelates in phytoextraction is the possible contamination of groundwater via leaching of these heavy metals [110]. This is because of the increased availability of heavy metals in the soil solution when these chelates are used. In addition, when chelates (especially synthetic chelates) are used in high concentrations, they can become toxic to plants and soil microbes [106]. Mcgrath, “Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.
PhytostabilizationPhytostabilization involves using plants to immobilize metals, thus reducing their bioavailability via erosion and leaching. Jadia and Fulekar [111] on the other hand showed that the growth of plants (used for phytostabilization) was adversely affected when the concentration of heavy metal in the soil was high.Phytostabilization of heavy metals takes place as a result of precipitation, sorption, metal valence reduction, or complexation [29]. Borůvka, “Effects of heavy metal concentrations on biological activity of soils microorganisms,” Plant, Soil and Environment, vol. Plants help in stabilizing the soil through their root systems; thus, they prevent erosion.
Plant root systems equally prevent leaching via reduction of water percolation through the soil. In addition, plants prevent man’s direct contact with pollutants and they equally provide surfaces for metal precipitation and sorption [112].Based on the above factors, it is important that appropriate plants are selected for phytostabilization of heavy metals. Virzo de Santo, “Suitability of soil microbial parameters as indicators of heavy metal pollution,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. The best soil amendments are those that are easy to handle, safe to workers who apply them, easy to produce, and inexpensive and most importantly are not toxic to plants [113]. Most of the times, organic amendments are used because of their low cost and the other benefits they provide such as provision of nutrients for plant growth and improvement of soil physical properties [7].In general, phytostabilization is very useful when rapid immobilization of heavy metals is needed to prevent groundwater pollution. PhytovolatilizationIn this form of phytoremediation, plants are used to take up pollutants from the soil; these pollutants are transformed into volatile forms and are subsequently transpired into the atmosphere [115].
The toxic form of Hg (mercuric ion) is transformed into the less toxic form (elemental Hg). Acharekar, “Effect of industrial pollution on growth and content of certain weeds,” Journal for Nature Conservation, vol.
Examples of transgenic plants which have been used for phytovolatilization of Hg polluted soils are Nicotiana tabacum, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Liriodendron tulipifera [117, 118].
These plants are usually genetically modified to include gene for mercuric reductase, that is, merA.


Organomercurial lyase (merB) is another bacterial gene used for the detoxification of methyl-Hg.
Both merA and merB can be inserted into plants used to detoxify methyl-Hg to elemental Hg [119].
Use of plants modified with merA and merB is not acceptable from a regulatory perspective [119]. Luttge, “Mineral nutrition: divalent cations, transport and compartmentation,” Progress in Botany, vol. However, plants altered with merB are more acceptable because the gene prevents the introduction of methyl-Hg into the food chain [120].Phytovolatilization can also be employed for the remediation of soils polluted with Se [7]. This involves the assimilation of inorganic Se into organic selenoamino acids (selenocysteine and selenomethionine). Selenomethionine is further biomethylated to dimethylselenide which is lost in the atmosphere via volatilization [121]. Combining Plants and Microbes for the Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted SoilsThe combined use of both microorganisms and plants for the remediation of polluted soils results in a faster and more efficient clean-up of the polluted site [123]. Mycorrhizal fungi have been used in several remediation studies involving heavy metals and the results obtained show that mycorrhizae employ different mechanisms for the remediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Rimmer, “Zinc-copper interaction affecting plant growth on a metal-contaminated soil,” Environmental Pollution, vol. It is important to note that mycorrhiza does not always assist in the remediation of heavy metal polluted soils [133, 134] and this may be attributed to the species of mycorrhizal fungi and the concentration of heavy metals [7, 132].
Studies have also shown that activities of mycorrhizal fungi may be inhibited by heavy metals [135, 136]. In addition, Weissenhorn and Leyval [137] reported that certain species of mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) can be more sensitive to pollutants compared to plants.Other microorganisms apart from mycorrhizal fungi have also been used in conjunction with plants for the remediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Most of these microbes are the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that are usually found in the rhizosphere. These PGPR stimulate plant growth via several mechanisms such as production of phytohormones and supply of nutrients [138], production of siderophores and other chelating agents [139], specific enzyme activity and N fixation [140], and reduction in ethylene production which encourages root growth [141].In general, PGPR have been used in phytoremediation studies to reduce plant stress associated with heavy metal polluted soils [142]. Enhanced accumulation of heavy metals such as Cd and Ni by hyperaccumulators (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) has been observed when the plants were inoculated with Bacillus sp. Thus, this indicates that the mechanisms employed by PGPR in the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils may be dependent on the species of PGRP and plant involved in the process. Although studies involving both the use of mycorrhizal fungi and PGPR are uncommon, Vivas et al. ConclusionPlants growing on heavy metal polluted soils show a reduction in growth due to changes in their physiological and biochemical activities. This is especially true when the heavy metal involved does not play any beneficial role towards the growth and development of plants. It is most appropriate when the remediated site is used for crop production because it is a nondisruptive method of soil remediation. Huang, “Phytoextraction of metals,” in Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean up the Environment, I. Using plants for bioremediation (phytoremediation) is a more common approach to bioremediation of heavy metal compared with the use of microorganisms. Phytoextraction is the most common method of phytoremediation used for treatment of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both plants and microorganisms in bioremediation increases the efficiency of this method of remediation.
Both mycorrhizal fungi and other PGPR have been successfully incorporated in various phytoremediation programmes.
Kuleff, “Instrumental techniques for trace analysis,” in Trace Elements: Their Distribution and Effects in the Environment, J.
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