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Description: Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life. This globe, which is 18 cm in diameter, is presented on a separate hand-turned wooden base. Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was born to a minor Portuguese noble family in 1480 and by the age of 12 had become a pageboy to his Queen, at the Court of King John II. On the Moluccan expedition of 1511, Magellana€™s friend, Francisco Serrao had been shipwrecked and had taken refuge on the island of Ternate where, despite later voyages there by the Portuguese, he had chosen to remain. The five ships, San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago were all small, (none above 130 tons), old and somewhat the worse for wear.
Also on board was a Venetian, Antonio Pigafetta, a Papal Ambassador at the court of King Charles.
On September 20, 1519 the flotilla of five ships finally sailed off into the Atlantic heading first for the Canaries and then onto South America.
The threat of mutiny by his Spanish captains was also a constant source of concern and he was forced to arrest de Coca for conspiring to release Cartagena from his confinement on the Victoria.
By March 31st 1520 they had reached 49 degrees 15a€™ South, but the ships were taking such a heavy battering in the worsening climate that Magellan put into a sheltered bay named St Julian to wait out the rest of the Southern winter and to make good all the vital repairs that the different ships needed.
However Magellan could not afford to lose such a large number of his company and so he pardoned the lot; they were put to work, chained by the feet, working the pumps, clearing the putrid bilges and undertaking other menial hard labor. The winter in Patagonia was extremely hard and life very uncomfortable for the crew who had to refit the ships for the voyage ahead.
After a two-month stay and unknowingly within 300 miles of it, on 18th October they set off in search of the passage. The San Antonio, was carrying the bulk of the fleeta€™s provisions, had a Portuguese pilot Gomes who was both jealous and disaffected with Magellana€™s command and together with the fleeta€™s treasurer Guerra they took control of the ship from the Captain Mesquita. It is interesting to note that whilst Magellan had always made every attempt to save or rescue his crew when abandoned, the San Antonio made no effort to retrieve the marooned Cartagena at St Julian. Pigafetta describes, a€?We ate biscuit that was no longer biscuit but powder of biscuits swarming with worms that had eaten the good.
On February 28th they had reached 13A? North and sailing west arrived at the island of Guam (having passed by unnoticed the Marshall Islands). Although the crew were refreshed by new supplies of water, fruit and fish a longer rest was needed before any possible encounter with the Portuguese and so sailing southwest the four ships arrived a week later at the island of Samur in the Philippines. However there was provision in the Treaty of Tordesillias for discovered unclaimed territory in either half to belong to the discoverer if he could establish trading ports and conclude alliances with the local rulers.
Striking up another friendship with the local native Chief, Magellana€™s fleet was taken on to the larger island of Cebu, where once again Magellan not only became the local rulera€™s (Humabon) blood brother and established trading agreements but also converted him and two thousand of his people to Christianity. Learning that Humabon had several rivals to the rulership of Cebu, Magellan forced other local chiefs to accept Humabona€™s authority.
Albo who had been keeping his navigational log since first crossing the Atlantic was able to confirm that the Moluccas were placed in the Portuguese hemisphere.
The two ships laden with their cargoes prepared to leave for Spain on December 18th, but almost immediately the Trinidad sprung such a bad leak that she was forced to remain to carry out extensive repairs. It is interesting to note that while on the Cape Verde Islands they had discovered that although all the logs on the boat showed that it was a Wednesday, the calendars on land all showed it to be a Thursday. Cano was received as a hero and, at an enquiry set up into the voyage, condemned Magellana€™s unfairness, thereby lending weight to the arguments of the deserters of the San Antonio.
Meanwhile the crew of the Trinidad under Espinosa had embarked on an equally hazardous and grueling voyage trying to re-cross the Pacific from west to east.
The work Magellan had done in the Philippines eventually paid off, as the islands became Spaina€™s largest Pacific colony lasting almost until the 20th Century. Description:A  Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life.
Battling depression and a life of debilitating obesity, Dustin shares the side of the mirror he had to face to become the best version of himself. Kyle learned from his past weight-loss attempts that trying on his own wasn't working.
Patrick lost over 100 pounds in under a year, without restricting any of the foods he loved. In a very low moment in her life, a television show about dramatic transformations gave Victoria the boost to transform herself. Despite the long journey ahead, Jade realized her weight & health were a risk to her dreams of motherhood. Despite the long journey ahead, Jade realized her weight & health were a risk to her dreams of motherhood.
Andrew Shanahan is an award-winning writer, editor and publisher, and the man behind Man V Fat - a magazine aimed at supporting men's weight loss around the world. Andrew Shanahan is an award-winning writer, editor and publisher, and the man behind Man V Fat - a magazine aimed at supporting men's weight loss around the world. Troye changed her own life—and created a new one—through a raw food and juicing intervention.
From hating her body to a self-described "powerlifting, cooking machine," Rachel would never have believed her own transformation. As seen below, Hans Holbein used this globe as reference for the small terrestrial globe in his famous masterpiece painting entitled The Ambassadors. Like many of the younger Portuguese nobility he received his education at Court and could look forward to a military command, a diplomatic post or an administrative position in Portugal or her colonies. He had sent letters back to Portugal extolling the riches of the islands and urging Magellan to visit him. They all needed extensive repairs and renovation to make them seaworthy for such a voyage much to the amusement of Alvarez the Portuguese agent in Spain. Whether he was on board out of a sense for adventure, or on behalf of the Pope should any dispute arise over whose half the Spice Islands were in, or as a spy for his native Venice is unclear.
However, the course taken south went along the Coast of Africa until Sierra Leone and then went across the Atlantic was both extremely long and hazardous being susceptible to extreme changes in the wind and weather. Because they were technically moored in a Portuguese colony, albeit one that had not established a proper trading post, they sought to leave as soon as they had recuperated and by December 26th they were sailing out of Guanabara Bay and heading south. In order to survive the winter and still have enough provisions to continue the search, Magellan cut the daily rations in half much to the annoyance of his crew.
Capatins Quesada and Cartagena on the Concepcion, Captain Mendoza of the Victoria and the master of the Concepcion del Cano with other Officers plotted to overthrow Magellan and return to Spain. Of the ringleaders, Mendoza had already been killed by Espinosa on the retaking of the Victoria, but was still taken ashore, decapitated and quartered.
Their rations had been cut by half and there was little wild food locally apart from mussels. Three days later they had reached the Cape of the Virgins (named by Magellan) and Magellan instructed the Concepcion and the San Antonio to investigate a small inlet at the far side of the bay sided by high peaks.
Persuading the rest of the crew that Magellan was leading them all to certain doom and starvation they retraced their route to the South Atlantic and straight home to Spain, where, despite Mesquitaa€™s testimony, their tales of Magellana€™s injustice were believed.
It was now of paramount importance to Magellan that he succeeded in his mission, as he knew the consequences he must face if he returned to Spain unsuccessful after the San Antonio told her story. From the logs and journals available Magellana€™s course had taken him across the Pacific missing out every one of the large South Sea Island groups. They settled on the smaller island of Homonhon where they were visited by friendly natives who brought them fresh food, spices, and wine. Sailing on they arrived at the small island of Limosawa where to the delight of all parties concerned, Magellana€™s Malay slave Enrique was able not only to understand the natives but also to be understood himself.
It was clear that Magellan had plans for Humabon and Cebu to become the central base for subsequent Spanish exploitation of the Philippines. However one, Lapulapu, refused and Magellan personally took charge of a force of both Spanish and natives to subjugate him. Carvalho assumed command, and owing to the loss of manpower to crew three ships, the Concepcion the least seaworthy of the three was scuttled and burnt.
This did not deter the Spanish, however, because the local feeling was strongly anti-Portuguese and with the help of a disaffected Portuguese trader called Larosa, a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Rajah of Tidore.
Thus the Victoria under the command of Cano finally left on her own on December 21st and by sailing southwest to Timor and through the Timor Sea into the Indian Ocean she took a fluctuating course due west two degrees either side of 40 degree parallel. At first they puzzled over the mistake they thought they had made before eventually realizing that by traveling a 360-degree circumference of the globe they had lost a day. It was not until much later when other crewmembers accounts, including Pigafettaa€™s, became known that Magellana€™s reputation was restored. Departing Tidore on April 6, 1522 after having made the necessary repairs they sailed north east, but lacking knowledge of the northern Pacifica€™s wind system they struggled up to the 44 degree parallel just off the Japanese coast still hoping to get some westerly winds. Although he had died in the Philippines, it is to Magellan that the credit for the voyage belongs. Magellana€™s route, particularly through the straits named after him was attempted many times in expeditions that followed his but with little success. Our guests share their weight loss stories, the challenges they faced, how they stayed motivated, and how they are maintaining their results.
However, she discovered that overeating was only a symptom of other issues she was dealing with.
Hear about loving yourself, your journey, and how to make the first weeks of a lifestyle change successful. I don’t recall the exact date, but it was March 2013 that I began what I call the next step in my journey towards weight loss. One of the items made to commemorate this feat was a small terrestrial globe; it is possibly an early example of a commemorative souvenir. Because the exact longitude of the Moluccas was uncertain, Magellan thought that their far easterly position might bring them into the Spanish hemisphere as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillias of 1494.
Alvarez did his utmost to sow seeds of doubt amongst Magellana€™s new backers, whilst gauging what potential threat they might pose to the Portuguese possessions overseas. Whatever his reasons Pigafetta kept a detailed journal of the voyage, describing the weather, wildlife and indigenous people as well as the conditions the crew were forced to endure. Already there was talk of mutiny amongst the Spanish Officers who had plenty of experience in crossing the Atlantic. After two weeks the ships had reached Cape St Mary where Magellan is reputed to have said of the large hill behind the Cape a€?I see a mountaina€? [Montem Video] thereby naming the place where Uruguaya€™s capital city now stands. His determination to find a southwestern passage was fuelled by the knowledge that should he fail he faced the choice between a return to Spain in disgrace and with little prospect of further backing, or risking sailing east, south of the Cape of Good Hope, away from the Portuguese shipping lines and onto the Spice Islands.
To this end they boarded the San Antonio and took command, so that when Magellan awoke the following morning he found that only his own ship the Trinidad along with the smaller Santiago were still loyal to him. After an anxious wait of five days the two ships returned with the news that the inlet was not a river but a strait leading into a bay followed by another Strait leading into an even larger bay.
On November 28, 1520 after spending 36 days in the a€?Magellana€™ Straits the three remaining ships entered what Magellan called the Mar Pacifico. Rats were sold for half a ducat each and even so we could not always get them.a€? Magellan realized that if they were approaching the Moluccas they had to find a place to harbor soon, so that the crew could recover before sailing too close to the dangers of Portuguese waters where he knew he might be challenged. Although Enrique was thought to have originally come from Sumatra it was quite possible that he was already a captured slave by then and it has been suggested that only someone from the Central Philippines could have understood the dialect.
The crews were refreshed by the abundance of good food and water and were also able to indulge in their favorite pastime of rampant sexual liaisons with the women of Cebu.
Whether his success as a great Christian warrior and leader had clouded his judgment or whether he just underestimated the opposition, the fact was the campaign was a disaster and brought about Magellana€™s death. There followed six months of meandering around the Philippines and Brunei, most of it spent searching out fresh supplies. In fact the Portuguese had apparently been awaiting Magellana€™s ships from the onset of the voyage with two squadrons of warships.
The journey turned out to be a nightmare, probably worse than the crossing of the Pacific as the crew were forced to do arduous work on the pumps to combat the appalling leaks, all on rations of just rice and water as the meat and other fresh produce had spoilt through lack of salt or any other preservative. But with inadequate provisions, a broken main mast and a crew succumbing to scurvy they were forced to retreat south, finally surrendering to a Portuguese force that had been sent to the Moluccas. He had found the western route to the east and had achieved what Columbus had tried and failed to do. Yet despite the overt goals of the expedition being a failure, Magellana€™s personal goal of finding a western route to the east and the knowledge of the globe resulting from that was one of mankinda€™s greatest successes.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. After seven years of distinguished service in India, Malacca (Malaysian peninsula) and the Moluccas (Spice Islands) he returned to Portugal but received little recognition from his King, Manuel I, and no increase in his pension. His plan was to sail west and like Columbus before him to try and find the western route to the east and the Spice Islands. Satisfied that they were as poorly armed as they were fitted, Alvarez thought Portuguese interests might be best served by an opportunist attack on them if they should stray anywhere near Portuguese colonial interests. Throughout the voyage his admiration for Magellan, for his command and character is displayed on every page. Magellan knew this route was well known for its unpredictable weather and that most ships tried to avoid it, but he was anxious to negate any Portuguese attempts to intercept and destroy his expedition and despite the misgivings of some of his Spanish officers refused to jeopardize his mission by altering his course.
They explored the estuary of the River Plate, ruling out any possible channel and then continued South with the weather growing increasingly colder, the terrain bleaker and the seas rougher before stopping briefly at Bahia de los Patos (literally Ducksa€™ Bay) named after the abundant penguins found there. This latter option meant the possibility of being intercepted by the Portuguese that would have caused his sponsor the King of Spain great embarrassment and would have further damaged his reputation at both courts. The three mutineersa€™ ships gave them a firepower advantage of two to one and if they had moved with the same decisiveness as Magellan they would have without doubt succeeded. Cano was spared and put in chains in the bilges with the other mutineers and Cartagena who had been a perpetual thorn in Magellana€™s side for the whole expedition was also spared but later was left marooned along with a priest on the desolate coast when the ships finally departed. Pigafetta made copious notes of the region that Magellan had called Patagonia because the natives had such large feet encased in big leather boots (Patagonia means large foot in Spanish).
Magellan with greatly diminished stores now made the almost fatal mistake of not seeking out new provisions for the journey across the Pacific. Unfortunately his knowledge of this part of the world was based on third hand travelersa€™ and merchantsa€™ tales and having come from an easterly direction he was not at all sure of the geography, believing that he was quite near the Japanese coast. Both crew and ships were barely functional by the time they reached Guam, but the crew was too ill or weak to consider mutiny and tended to optimism in Magellana€™s belief that they had reached the northern edge of the Molucca archipelago. If this was so it means that Enrique, a humble Philippine slave was the first man to have circumnavigated the globe. Pigafettaa€™s journal interestingly notes that the men of Cebu pierced their penises with gold or tin bolts that often had small spurs attached to either end. Unable to use the firepower of his ships because of an outlying reef, Magellana€™s men were overwhelmed by superior numbers, and although his own personal resolution and bravery ensured that the majority of his men were able to escape, he himself was cut down and killed on April 27, 1521. On September 21st after fleeing Brunei Carvallho who had never received the full confidence of his crew, and who stood accused of unnecessarily abandoning crew members in tricky situations was deposed as commander being replaced by Espinosa, with Cano the former mutineer, being made Captain of the Victoria. One Squadron had been sent to the Cape of Good Hope should he strike east for the Moluccas, the other to the estuary of the River Plate should he attempt to find the western passage. With the crew on the verge of mutiny and in extremely harsh conditions the Cape of Good Hope was eventually rounded on May 19, 1522, but the Victoria was badly damaged and 21 of her Crew were to die from starvation, disease or exhaustion between the Cape and the Cape Verde Islands. Of the 54 Europeans who set off from Tidore only 21 survived, the rest were imprisoned, and only four of them, including Espinosa ever made it back to Spain. Magellana€™s voyage had given the world its known dimensions, although it would take another three centuries to fill in all the gaps. A mendacious campaign was mounted that the whole route had been a sham, so difficult was it proving to replicate, that the true worth of his seamanship was recognized. None of the original globes have survived to the present day, and only one set of unmounted gores has survived. Worse still he had put all his savings into backing a scheme by a Portuguese trader to ship pepper from India to Portugal. This expedition he hoped would ensure his financial security as well as bringing him the fame and recognition he felt was long overdue.
His interference in Magellana€™s preparations led to Spanish misgivings over the number of Portuguese members of the proposed crews and in the end only 37 of the 270 odd crew were Portuguese with three of the five captains of the individual ships being Spanish. Two other important members of the company were Albo, a Greek pilot who kept a detailed navigational log from the first sighting of the Brazilian Coast until the sighting of Cape Vincent on the return (November 29th 1519 to September 4, 1522) and San Martin an astrologer and astronomer who made calculations on the exact point of longitude the ships had reached; he was also the most accomplished pilot at celestial navigation amongst Magellana€™s crew. The Spanish Captains, Castilians of high birth considered themselves more knowledgeable and it wasna€™t long before there was open insubordin-ation resulting in the replacement of Cartogena as the Captain of the San Antonio with another Spaniard, Antonio de Coca. The penguins along with sea lions provided the necessary fresh food supplies and after sheltering from tremendous storms they continued southwards.
In a resolute speech to his men, he promised them the paradise of the Moluccas if they would honor their commitment, trust his leadership and behave accordingly. However, the mutineers were unable to coordinate their efforts or win the total loyalty of their crews and as a result suffered the consequences.


In fact two of the native men were captured to be taken back as presents for the King, but neither survived the journey. Carefully sounding their way through the straits they reached Cape Valentine where Magellan sent the San Antonio to investigate the southeast channel whilst taking the other three ships southwest in what was proved to be the right direction. He still believed that the distance to the Moluccas was not much more than the length of the Mediterranean and therefore it was prudent to push on as speedily as possible. Magellan was able to re-supply the ships, but constant thieving by the natives including one of the longboats from the Trinidad forced him to use a raiding party that killed seven natives and wounded several others.
From measurements made by both Albo and San Martin it became apparent that the expedition had passed beyond the Spanish hemisphere and had already entered the Portuguese domain. Females from the age of six upwards progressively had their vaginas opened and enlarged to accommodate these penis appendages.
The invulnerability of the Spanish had been destroyed and with it Humabona€™s faith in them. Finally on November 8, 1521 the two ships sailed into the harbor of Tidore to a warm welcome.
When both failed to locate Magellan, the Indian fleet had been alerted and a small force had been sent to the Moluccas. Desperate to get fresh food and also slaves to man the pumps Cano was forced to take the huge risk of putting into the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. Larosa, the Portuguese trader who had opted to return with the Trinidad rather than the Victoria was beheaded as a traitor.
First the Portuguese with established bases in Southern Africa, India and Malaya were in a far better position to exploit the Moluccas that were after all proven to be in their hemisphere. Lesser men would have failed and indeed did so, but Magellan was a genuine leader, he had a determined self-belief allied with a stubborn nature that belied his romantic notion of heroism and honor. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted.
The merchant had subsequently died and his father had fled the country to escape his sona€™s creditors.
To this end he began to study all the maps, pilots logs, charts and journals he could obtain. The remainder of the various crews comprised of Greeks, Italians, French, Flemings, Africans, Spanish, an Englishman and Malays including Enrique, a slave from Malacca who Magellan had brought back to Portugal on his previous expedition East. Most of the crew were probably won over by Magellana€™s stand but certainly not the Castilian Officers and Captains whose resentment of his single mindedness and inflexibility was still growing. The Santiago was the first ship to be repaired and Magellan, eager to find the Western passage as soon as possible, sent her on an exploratory probe along the coast.
He kept the South American coastline in sight whilst heading north to about 30A? South before heading northwest and crossing the equator on Feb 13, 1521 at about 160-165A? W longitude, missing both the Tahitian and Marquesas Island groups, where they could have amply replenished their supplies and the crew could have recovered. Pigafetta recounts that when the natives were hit by crossbow bolts they were so astonished that they promptly pulled them out and as a result died from hemorrhaging. This was slightly awkward for Magellan as he had assured King Charles that the Moluccas lay just within the Spanish half.
Pigafetta confirms a fact that is hardly surprising by noting that the women of Cebu seemed to prefer Magellana€™s men as lovers rather than the locals. At a subsequent banquet, Serrano and Barbosa, who had assumed joint command (along with a party of men that included San Martin), were ambushed and killed by Humabon. They had hoped and expected to be met by Magellana€™s shipwrecked friend Serrao but he had died from poison some eight months before as a result of becoming too involved in local native politics (compare with Magellan). This expedition had ended in disaster and death as they had antagonized the local Rajah with their treatment of the local women.
By pretending to be part of a Spanish fleet that had been blown off course in a storm whilst returning from the Americas they were able to harbor and negotiate for new supplies.
The local rajah, with the arrival of the Portuguese force repudiated all the agreements and treaties he had made with the Spanish. Secondly, the Spanish American possessions that at first had seemed largely worthless were now, after Cortes Conquest of Mexico, proving to be abundant in gold and silver. Intensely proud of his nobility and his own worth, he could be tough when needed, humane and caring when circumstances warranted it and always courageous.
It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak.
Magellan who had only a meager pension to live on was broke and so he volunteered for a Portuguese campaign against Morocco; where he again distinguished himself with his bravery. He knew that Columbus had failed to find a passage around the Central American coastline, that Cabot had likewise failed in the North, that the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci had possibly reached as far South as the River Plate estuary and Patagonia without encountering a passage and that Balboa had crossed the Panamanian Isthmus and seen a great ocean that was different to the Atlantic.
Taking advantage of the mutineersa€™ attempts at negotiation he sent Espinosa, the Trinidada€™s loyal master of arms along with a disguised boarding party and retook the Victoria that same evening.
Unfortunately 70 miles south near the Santa Cruz estuary a sudden gale drove her aground and she broke up, leaving the crew stranded. Both food and water were running out and what was left was rotten or putrid, so that the crew was suffering from malnutrition and scurvy. This trouble with the natives caused Magellan to rename the islands, Islas le los Lodrones [Islands of Thieves]. Having journeyed all this way across the Pacific, losing 19 men through scurvy and suffering all manners of deprivation to find themselves already within territory reserved for Portuguese exploitation was a sever blow. Enrique, who had been promised his freedom should Magellan die and then found that Serrano would not honor this was probably instrumental in helping set up the trap. A few days before the two Spanish ships had arrived in Tidore, the survivors had fled back to Malacca without any knowledge of the Spanish ships imminent arrival. Carelessly one of the crewmembers used some cloves (that could only have come from the Portuguese Moluccas) as part of the transactions and when their ruse was discovered Cano was forced to put to sea immediately, thereby abandoning 13 of his crew (including Pigafetta). In 1529 Charles signed away any claims for the Moluccas that Spain had in return for 350,000 ducats at the Treaty of Saragossa. He always tried to deal fairly with the natives and his expedition while under his command carried out none of the atrocities that previous and future Colonials seemed to revel in.
She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season. However he not only suffered a severe leg wound which caused him to limp for the rest of his life, he also, whilst in the position of Quartermaster suffered the unjust accusations of dishonesty, theft and treason. He became convinced that a southwestern route was there south of the River Plate, and the scientist, mapmaker and scholar Rui Faleiro, who thought that the likely passage was just below the 40 degree South latitude, shared this belief. They were also able to buy young native women from their fathers for the price of a hatchet or knife.
Two members trekked for eleven days back to San Julian to alert Magellan and an overland rescue party was organized. Fortunately Pigafetta who relished banquets and parties was suffering from a head wound and did not attend.
Fortunately Espinosa managed to keep his own crew from their usual sexual indulgences and apart from signing treaties and purchasing a large cargo of cloves, he enjoyed an amicable relationship with the locals and their rulers. Caro sailed on to Spain with a crew of only 18, arriving September 6, 1522 at the harbor of San Lucar, a circumnavigation of the Earth that had taken just two weeks under three years to complete. When the Spanish later continued their exploration of the Pacific it was from their base in Panama. From his voyage the new humanists in Europe, the philosophers, scholars, scientists and artists were able to gain a truer understanding of their world and with this information continue to challenge the dogma and medieval beliefs that were still prevalent. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. Magellan found the charges against him contemptuous and he rashly abandoned his post to return to Lisbon and clear his name. He also assured Magellan that the ocean Balboa had seen could not be more than a couple of thousand miles across and that the Spice Islands must therefore be in the Spanish half of the world as laid down by the Treaty of Tordesillias. Magellan allowed his crew some freedom and many of them set up a€?love nestsa€™ with their women on shore, but he still kept a firm discipline when it mattered - executing the shipa€™s master of the Victoria for sodomizing a young apprentice seaman.
It is not known for certain whether Magellan was instrumental in cutting loose the anchors of the San Antonio but the ship did indeed break loose of its anchorage and drifted broadside of the Trinidad enabling Magellan to board and recapture her. It was not until August 24th with Santiagoa€™s crew redistributed amongst the four remaining ships and Serrano the a€?Santiagoa€™sa€™ captain, now installed as the Captain of the Concepcion that Magellan finally left the bay. He had provided the answer to man's seemingly eternal quest to find the true shape and size of the Earth.
With his humiliation at the hands of the Portuguese King fresh in his mind, it was to Spain that Magellan now offered his knowledge and his services. The Concepcion had no choice now but to surrender, so that within 48 hours the mutiny had taken place and been extinguished.
They moved along the coast near to where the Santiago had been wrecked to a better winter anchorage in the estuary of the Santa Cruz where there were plenty of supplies of fish, seals and seabirds to replenish their stores.
Magellan returned to face trial and was cleared of all charges but his relationship with his King had deteriorated to such an extent that Manuel I refused all of Magellana€™s requests for financial recognition of his loyal service and told him that he could take his offers of service elsewhere. This plan may have been encouraged by the news of Juan Diaz de Solisa€™ Spanish expedition of 1515 which had reached 35 degrees South before an exploratory landing party led by Solis himself had encountered death and disaster. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. This was the principle reason why Magellan came to sail around the world under the Spanish flag. They were attacked by hostile natives, slaughtered, butchered roasted and then eaten in view of the rest of the crew watching from the safety of their ships. Although many of the crew had participated in the mutiny, forty were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. The expedition was aborted but the news from the survivors back in Spain seemed to indicate that with the coastline bearing west at that point, a likely passage through to Balboaa€™s Ocean lay just South of that latitude. Magellana€™s plan interested the young Spanish monarch Charles I (later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and a formal agreement was made between the two in March 1518, whereby Magellan was appointed Captain General of the proposed expedition, given five ships, and the prospective governorship of any new lands he might discover plus one fifth of the profits from the voyage. He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal.
Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career.
He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883.
She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way.
5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time.
She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life.
In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out. I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets. By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities.
Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways.
The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work.
Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication. Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work.
He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies.


His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt.
13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut.
The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time. Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet). The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues.
During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums.
Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site.
Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered.
People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier.
The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work".
A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator.
It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple.
On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.
I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying.
18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive".
A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked.
Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find.
Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus. 20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds. He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected. A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered.
The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design.
In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose. A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity. The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site.
She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896.
After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation.
The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance.
By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier.
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts.
An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone.
She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding.
Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained.
Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt.
Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high.
The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22.
In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken.
The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits.
A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased.
The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections.
It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple.
In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner. It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities.
A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed. This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple. Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen.
The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler.
The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it. A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts.
At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls. In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse. Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.




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