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Information contained in this series should be used as a guide only and should not be relied upon as the sole source of information relating to its content.
You are encouraged to do your own research and obtain your information from as many sources as possible. Every youth may not want or need to use all the recommended resources, which is perfectly acceptable. In the past, we outlined and encouraged a bachelora€™s degree through Excelsior College and college level testing: ECE, CLEP, and DANTES. From ages 12-18, he took BYU online classes and matched them with with classic books from our lists. Since we begin high school in Year 7, youngsters use Years 11 and 12 to finish these courses and pursue personal interest studies.
When or if you are tempted to blow off an assignment or do a rush job to get it out of the way of more fun things, think of this. Accelerated Distance Learning-Get this from the library and read the introduction through page 34 and 163-188 the week before you begin school work this year.
Since you already studied Western Civ I materials during your Freshman and Sophomore coursework, you might consider reading the REA study guide for the course and taking this test before you begin studying this fall.
After working through the Grammar Girl series, a certain group of youth who worked with me for several years, could not grasp compound vs run-on sentences or punctuation.
If remedial penmanship practice is needed, here are some free resources: Click Here, Click Here, Click Here, Click Here. Excellence in Literature: British Literature-read, study, and write according to the schedule in the book.
This is the first step in learning this historical subject and will astound you to see how the ideas of men thousands of years ago still influence thought today.
Vocabulary-Write down the new vocabulary and definitions listed in the book in bold as you find them in your readings throughout each week.
Study Guide-This is sort of an open book pretest right before the test to help you prepare for the real thing. Life With Fred: Calculus, Statistics, Linear Algebra (Choose a Life book or two each year that further you along the path. Transcribe (translate and write) favorite passages into English and narrate them in Spanish.
Memorize 1 hymn vocally and instrumentally per month and write a paragraph on its story and message.
Both young men and young women should learn how to do organize a home and keep the home for at least one month, care for family laundry for one week, and plan menus, shop, and cook all meals for one week within family budget and health considerations. Another purpose is to help youngsters that dona€™t have the desire or aptitude for the college path. Now that your cottage is finished, build some book shelves, tansu stairs, and other compact furnishings.
Adventurous Project Choice 2: Build a hoop house to cover your new vegetable garden and extend the growing season. Adventurous Project Choice 3: This adventurous project that could be done as a family or sibling project. Sewing is a dying art, because ita€™s much cheaper to buy poorly made garments from developing nations. June, 1959, I ran away from home, Columbus, Ohio, and traveled Route 40, the National Road, to San Francisco.
I stayed at the Salvation Army in Indianapolis the first night, breakfest was chicken noodle soup, and stale donuts much to my delight as I knew I was going to run short on money during my odyssey. I kept my wallet inside my underwear band so that if someone tried to rob me, I would feel it, and stop them.
Most important to my odyssey was meeting a Jewish caddy who took me home with him, and his family put me up;otherwise, to this day, I have no idea where I wound have stayed that first night in San Francisco.
Next, my new buddies and I were loaded onto a bus and delivered to Fort Ord for basic training. Arriving at 11 PM, we were greeted by clerks hollering at us to move along and pickup our military issue clothes. To a lesser degree I was a misfit: 17 years old, 1,500 miles away from home, family, friends, and girlfriends.
I sometimes wonder how many of the soldiers in my basic training company stayed in the military and were killed in Vietnam.
Fort Ord was the basic training post for Alaskans who were kept in the same training company since language and culture would have been difficult to deal with if the groups were merged; however, I would have liked to have known them. I was selected to play on the Company football team having played three years in high school.
After advanced training, I was scheduled to go to Korea; however, my mother did not want me to go there. Before I left Ord for Bragg, I was assigned to the Human Research Project at the Presidio of Monterey, Monterey, California. Our unit at Fort Bragg, the 623d Quartermaster Company (Airborne), was put to the test to supply parachutes for the proposed jump into Cuba during the missile crisis. I learned to Cha Cha Cha at the enlisted men's club; the Cha Cha Cha is still the only dance I can do. I took a thirty day leave, the maximum you could take at one time, in the spring of 1962, and came home to Columbus.
I returned to Columbus and joined the 2d Special Forces Group (Airborne) stationed at Fort Hayes, Columbus, Ohio.
He should be in the Ohio Military Hall of Fame, but no one carried the flame in subsequent years to get him admitted. In 1962, we made a night jump with the drop zone being the top of a hill on the farmera€™s field. Then, Tim Kelly and I went to jumpmaster school at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, over spring break 1963. School under the legendary paul Brown; before following his boss to Ohio State as an assistant in 1941. I again caught up with Major Priday at Clinton County Air Force Base where he flew C-119a€™s, supporting our Fort Hayes, Special Forces, Group, on our jumps.
Today, November 16, 2011, Route 40 no longer exists as I knew Route 40 in 1959 when I hitchiked to San Francisco. And Then The Course Gets, Got, Gat Tough, Olympic, the golf course I caddied when I got to San Francisco in 1959.
SAN FRANCISCO a€” Just before 7 Tuesday morning, Tiger Woods pulled his driver from his bag and turned to face the first hole at the Olympic Club.
Olympica€™s first six holes set a tone for the tournament that is unrelenting and inescapable.
McIlroy set records of all manner, finishing 16 under par, shooting four rounds in the 60s, slaying Congressional and all but embarrassing the United States Golf Association. In the last Open at Olympic, in 1998, Payne Stewart hit a 6-foot putt on the viciously sloped 18th green, only to watch it roll 25 feet back down the hill.
That could present an interesting dynamic: Survive for 15 holes, score for three, and see what washes out. Even as Thompson strung together four birdies on the back nine at The Olympic Club that carried him to a 4-under-par 66, Woods put on a clinic on the other side of the course yesterday morning on how to handle the toughest test in golf.
Beau Hossler used a practice round with his idol, Phil Mickelson, to build confidence this week in preparation for the U.S. Then, the 17-year-old in braces shot an even-par 70 in the first round at The Olympic Club and was six shots better than Mickelson, a four-time major champion. Hossler, the first high-school player since the early 1950s to qualify for consecutive U.S. Oddly enough, he said Mickelsona€™s advice to him after a Tuesday practice round was a€?conservative lines and aggressive swingsa€? and a€?taking your medicinea€? with pars on the tight, twisting layout.
Hossler, who recently took second at the state high-school championship as a junior, had 12 pars, three bogeys and three birdies.
One golfer told his caddy, I shot a 73 today, one over par, If I can shoot par out for the tournament, I will win.
Holding the open is a burden on the members: course closed for a long time before tournament for making rough rougher, making greens faster,, club disrupted during tournament, dining, and recreational facilities not available. RFA might be Field Artillery reference of some sort but the 3 is the battalion and the D is the company. The soldier to the right of me is a Lebanese citizen, legal alien, so he was drafted which was fair. Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3. In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers.
Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters.
A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far.
The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path.
Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels.
As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs. As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river.
Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings. Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill. According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty. In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable. My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for.
Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door. Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go.
When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for.
But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins.
Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside!
Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times. So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline?
I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame. But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia.
While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam. The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him.
A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors.
My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera. So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights.
But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded? Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives. He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided.
Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins.
Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake.
Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft.
Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda).
This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire. The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps.
Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts.
Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch.
Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago.
Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet. 2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda. 33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995). It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife.
44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a. 49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?.
50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project. Yes, the government school system looks at year 9 as a freshman in high school, but most youth are more than ready for the challenge. Because he is the youngest and had little contact with other youth, he invited other home schoolers on his at home college journey. Then at 18 the youngster can attend any college for the 'experience' at the senior level bypassing most of the liberal agenda of the entry level subjects. If Dad is agreeable, read aloud together in the evenings after your young siblings are put to bed. Working with a couple youngsters with test anxiety, I could see clearly how they shot themselves in the foot and failed.
When the youngster has beautiful handwriting and excellent spelling, they are ready to stop but not before. Make sure to follow the assignments exactly including any reading or vocabulary building assignments. Classic in this sense refers to a living book that speaks to the soul instead of a book that has endured the test of time. Using last year's schedule as a guide, design a schedule to attach to the front and back covers of your notebooks. She should check to make sure you are keeping up, being neat, correcting your answers, etc.
Ia€™ve worked with a large number of 12-13 year old boys (and some girls) that have convinced themselves that they arena€™t college material. Learn to keep an apiary (aka become a backyard bee keeper.) Using the book First Lessons in Bee Keeping, build a beehive, install a purchased package of bees, care for the hive, and if you are lucky, harvest honey. If the book is scheduled to be read over 12 weeks, divide the number of pages in the book by 12.
I had been given ten dollars for graduation from my granddad; ten dollars would be equal to seventy dollars today, 2010 dollars.
I then lucked out with a ride with two teachers going to southern california to study for their masters. I hired my sixteen year old neighbor to cut my grass, but he wore flip flops, so I gave him an additional twenty dollars for shoes, his mother went ballistic and I have not seen him or his brother again.
The Army tried to make a soldier of him, but it was like trying to pound a square peg into a round hole. It was quite a sight seeing a company of these short squat soldiers running around the area all dressed alike in their fatigues.
I became friends with Robert Dallas, a resident alien, born in Scotland, immigrated to Australia, worked the South Pacific on tramp steamers, and immigrated a second time, to Los Angeles where he was drafted. The coach had started for Southern California, and was assigned to the Company, not the training platoons.
I always thought this was strange that a ranger qualified officer would be in a quartermaster company.
The elderly thin as a rail instructor dutifully brought her record player and records to the club and a few of us showed and learned. Bob Ruda was a civilian assigned as a recruiter at Fort Hayes; also, a sergeant in the unit.
We put out ham cans full of gasoline; the cans were lit and the C-119 pilots and pathfinders delivered us to the designated drop zone.
What a strange experience: from college finals, to learning how to conduct a parachute jump.
I would have liked to get to know them, if they had been integrated into all the companies.
Open annually bills itself as golfa€™s toughest test, and this year a€” particularly with the memory of soft and squishy Congressional Country Club in Bethesda, Md., rolling over for champion Rory McIlroy last year a€” it almost certainly will be. Open in recent memory came in 2007 at Oakmont, Pa., where Angel Cabreraa€™s winning score was 5 over par.
Olympica€™s quirks a€” from that torturous opening stretch to a finish that could be relatively benign a€” will dictate how this plays out.
Opens, wasna€™t surprised in the least by his own performance in front of dozens of family members and friends who made the trip from southern California. Story dedicated to Bill Riley, instructor Penn State, 2014, my insturctor, Ohio State, 2012, creative nonfiction. Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec.
Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art.
Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4. It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions. My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands.
Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge. And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles. With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges.
Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars. Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook.
Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole.
The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures. After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have?
Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records. According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken. Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs.
It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration.
If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam!
Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet. After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps.
The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade!
Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country!


When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled. First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it.
They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself. No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off.
When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him?
The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit? Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him.
It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second. Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas. We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark. They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated.
One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive. The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed.
I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another! On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no. While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers.
Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures.
Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov. The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p.
Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line. After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art. 3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques. The presence of a link or recommendation should not be construed as an endorsement by any publisher or organization of the contents of this web site. No warranty, either express or implied, is made with respect to the information contained herein. We continue to have read aloud literature this year (My Antonia and O Pioneer by Willa Cather.) First, it is important to hear the language of real literature, which will provide consistently accurate and complicated aural language patterns and build vocabulary.
Although some youngsters do not plan to go on to college, those that do may wish to consider working with North Atlantic Regional High School for an accredited diploma. Working diligently, a youngster can usually accomplish all of the following in about 30 hours per week. BYU online allows anyone to work through classes toward 75% of a degree completely from home. He started out with an upper level English course using Lord of the Rings as its core along with BYU core classes. You have many tools in your scheduling and studying tool belt to help you move forward at a reasonable and steady pace through your work. When you go to practice and the coach asks you to run stadiums or bases, do you walk over and pick daisies.
Some of my fondest memories as a mother center around reading and discussing deep subjects with my high school aged youth. After completing the tests assigned at the end of your Junior year, you will have 45 college credits.
After they have listened to understand, we want our young people to know how to speak up and not to be afraid to share their perspective on key social and political issues in such a way that they can be heard. Because beautiful penmanship is a necessary and useful skill, it is almost criminal neglect this portion of our childa€™s education. Divide pages in half vertically for this as in the On Your Own section, writing corrections on the right side of the page in red. Now that you are a youth, you should plan for your future which may include the need to care for your own budget, home, clothing, and cooking. During year nine, make one or two items of clothing for yourself or a family member with thine own hands.
Next to the subject, write the name or abbreviation of the book and the number of pages you have scheduled for that day. While the building of character, training of logical thought processes, and developing a lifelong hunger for learning are the priority goals of education, we must be realistic in the fact that our young men and some young women will need to support themselves and a family at some point. Images,snapshots,and pics often capture a sentiment,a mood,a feeling,or even an idea of a person who's at the center of attention. Mom came on bus, and I was released to her; we had a great trip, bonding together, on our way home.
Louis, Missouri, and encountered in a filling station bathroom the largest water bugs (roaches) I have ever seen. I first read of paying forward in my readings from the New York Times where I read a review of a book by a Jewish writer.
The queers tried to get into my room, but I would keep the chain on when I opened the door. He went down a line of forty men in a New York minute telling us to turn our heads, and assume the position, bend over, and cough as he examined us for hernias. If you seek the benefits of our country, you can defend the country was the governmenta€™s position. So, the army asked for a control group to go inside the isolation room in the locked pitch-black soundproof room with a chemical toilet for three days. So, I hitchiked to Dayton to Wright-Patterson AFB, and got a hop to San Antonio and visited my aunt Helen. He fought with the 2d Ranger Battalion, and the 3d Ranger Battalion; also, he is listed on the Vietnam Memorial. Tim studied geology, and explained the geological rock cuts on the highway as we headed to Fort Campbell.
Then, he left to join the Air Force, only to return in 1945 as a quarterback for Ohio State. A check chaser took merchantsa€™ bad checks, filed charges, and attempted to get the money. 18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2. Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting. The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world. Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness.
In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO. Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren. Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals.
I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch! By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being. A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary. We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself. Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads.
I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr. He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut! After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)? At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries.
But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism.
I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again.
Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall! Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw. After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows. For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict.
Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet.
And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime! Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets. Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives.
Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP. Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual. Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him.
In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide. If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance.
My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague.
Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd. The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes.
I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank! From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear.
By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley!
If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance.
The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia.
Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage. Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda.
539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets. The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels. The author is not responsible for any loss, inconvenience, damage (whether special or consequential), or claims arising out of the use of the information contained in this series.
Equally as important is for Mother to spend some enjoyable one on one time with each of her children. Later he branched out into English, Foreign Language, Logic, Government, Math, Science, Religion, and History courses that met the requirements of his desired degree, which he found on BYUa€™s website for his degree. While Dad may not be interested in some things, chances are he would welcome a nightly economics book club with his favorite adult in training.
Since beginning this journey, some scholars have dragged their heals before taking their first college level tests.
There is too much mud slinging and not enough real dialog (written or spoken) in society today. Practicing in this manner assures that you will be healthy and hygienic not broke, hungry, dirty, smelly, and sick.
Adventurous projects like the off-grid cottage in Year 8, can help these youngsters discover their intelligence. In January order a package of bees (We like Bee Weaver Apiary in Texas.) Bees arrive in early spring. You might further divide the number of pages per week by the amount of days you plan to read that week. Throughout the years,pictures has become one of the most popular ways to capture memorable moments.
I thought we had large waterbugs when we lived on Hubbard in flytown in Columbus, Ohio, but the St.
I was seventeen and being pushed around by this foreign noncitizen draftee so I have said where he is from. Then, the regular army NCOa€™s (noncommissioned officers) took over and proceeded to holler and badger us as we were prodded and tested. Well, I volunteered for the control group which didn't go into the absolute solitude buried in the dark. We were working ten hours a day, and half a day on Saturday since the 82nd Airborne Division did not have enough parachutes to make the jump. He was selling travel to training schools, and friendship with other veterans attending Ohio State University. Bill was a professional student at Ohio State University in anthropology working on his Ph.D.
The 9th supported the invasion rather than daylight bombing as the 8th did with their B-17's. At the bottom, out of sight, sat the green, some 520 yards away, a wicked and punishing par 4.
Rarely does a fairway find a flat spot, with the entire course cascading down a steep pitch toward Lake Merced. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away.
As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies.
Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren.
A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces.
My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence. Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone. That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution. And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam! Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil.
After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper. Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda.
Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace. I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively. After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy.
Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself. But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing. These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding.
As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings. But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend. La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter.
In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp. Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world.
I can think of no better way than to read aloud to each one privately, possibly at bedtime. Another option is BYUI, which for some students is a better choice and some just a bit too quickly paced. Being prepared and comfortable is much better than cramming and counting on superior intelligence. It is probably quite a financial investment but far less than you pay for the same amount of on-campus credits. It is not perfect in content, but will open their door to respectful but concise content review and commentary. Use selections from Prose and Poetry of England for copywork, dictation, and poetry memorization.
If you choose to do experiments, write down all experiments in an orderly format as you were instructed last year. Step up your organization skills in the area of science and learn to follow instructions precisely. Not only did this prevent the usual teen apathy, indolence, boredom, and mischief in their family, the earnings paid for college and missions for all of them.
Cushions 29 inches wide and 6-8 inches tall are a comfortable compromise between couch and bed size. Care of bees is minimal and easily done without the use of chemicals with bees from Bee Weaver. For instance, if you have 60 pages of something to read in one week and don't desire to read 60 pages in succession, you could divide it by 3 or 4.
And certainly,for a tantamount of consumer and shoppers you cant put a price tag on family and holiday pics. I use the term African-American when referring to Israel Garth to recognize his service; Israel is the only African-American in the picture. He, also, was in the Army in 1955, and was transferred 750 miles away, so away he went with one car, one wife, and two babies, and his possessions on a 24 hour nonstop hour cross country. I stayed in the barracks, periodically taking tests to compare my reactions to the control group. Well respected, and one day when I was at Myrtle Beach, I saw him on the pier, alone, looking sad, and lonely.
Sergeant Zollie Stifel, was a small in stature, but big in heart platoon sergeant in our rigger company.


The planes were recalled, but one plane turned the wrong way, and collided with a plane holding nine members of my unit.
Billa€™s claim to fame was that he was in the occupation army in Paris in 1947, and had an affair with Picassoa€™s wife.
And when the breeze picks up off the Pacific, just across the road from the clubhouse, watch out.
All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it.
I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs.
For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed.
I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority. Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job). Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him.
I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world. Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs. I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward.
There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories.
Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics.
After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round. Dona€™t give up the idea of finishing college by 18 if at all possible; simply take a bit more time with the books if necessary. If you did your coach or instructor wouldn't keep you on the team or in the studio for long. Recently, a young person took a five credit math class at SUU, which cost $1679 plus books. Use the questions following the booka€™s selections as narration prompts and learn the definitions and spellings of any listed vocabulary.
If you follow these instructions, you will learn a lot more about chemistry and be proud of your work. That hints at part of the purpose of these adventurous projects: familial congeniality, boredom busting, and entrepreneurship. Finally, not all college educated adults want to enter the rat race or walk a conveyor belt; these projects can help entrepreneurial minded people explore some interesting possibilities. If the cottage is to be a primary dwelling, build the drawers with food storage in mind: 25x10x8 holds 25 lbs of rolled oats or beans. If you are very lucky, meaning the weather cooperates, you may harvest honey your first year. Instead of checking off each box as you finish, write the number of minutes that you spent reading or doing that task.
Milestones Academy offers tools to prepare for a career without college such as Universal Accounting, Master Herbalist Certification, NAMC Preschool Teacher Certification, or Nand2Tetris as well as a complete college preparatory course with accelerated entry. Decades after the invention of the first camera, a large number of consumers and shoppers continue to take pics, in a hgh tech fashion. If you fell while running, the guys in the formation ran on you; usually the fallee was an out of shape NCO trying to get his wings for the $55 a month jump pay. You needed a heartless person to say pay or stay; that is, I will dismiss if you can pay the check, but if not, I will ask the judge to put you in jail. I replaced a lawyer, John Gall, who was finishing his eight year National Guard obligation.
African-American in front row was the drummer: Israel Garth from Arkansas who had worked a mule and chopped cotton.
And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power.
Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north!
So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought.
If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking.
Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw? Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes.
Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994). But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. Using a planner like the one below, the student can easily plan subjects and track time spent.
An average university student sits A class 12-20 hours a week and studies 2-3 hours per hour in class, and an scholastically minded high school student attends class 30 hours a week and does 3-5 hours of homework per night.
While we have agency to choose to follow rules or not, we cannot avoid consequences, good or bad. This should put the cost of this year's books, study guides, and test fees into proper perspective for you. Comparing and contrasting Sproul with LDS beliefs, we gain more understanding of a different Christian religious denomination and culture.
Although the pictures below are good inspiration, in a 14X14 cottage space is more limited.
After completing Year 10, which is the last year of high school for Milestones Students, youngsters begin a course in great books, finish up college testing, and possibly begin the following careers. Instead of the antiquated bulky cameras with huge lenses,consumers and shoppers frequently use SmartPhones and digital cameras to capture images and to take holiday pics. Colonel Glaze made it through the Second World War, only to die on a training mission in Ohio one day before his forty-fifth birthday. And the closing hole, a 344-yard par 4 with a fairway not much wider than a crack in the sidewalk, will leave almost everyone in the field taking an iron off the tee, then a pitching wedge to get to a tiny, elevated green. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections. In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair. Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again! Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate. At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS!
The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994).
Since youth should learn how to schedule time and activities at this age, we do not offer schedules at this point. We worked 4 days per week from 8-3 and rarely did anything except music practice, cooking, scouting, and adventurous projects outside these hours plus Wild Day once per week.
Plus, if you apply yourself, your education is a world class classical liberal arts education instead of a cram, test, and forget degree.
Since we can't expect everyone to believe what we believe, we must look for truth where we can find it but not embrace beliefs different to LDS teachings.
From family gatherings,to family picnics to traditional weddings to the holidays,consumers and shoppers often seize the opportunity at planned events and during the holidays for instance Thanksgiving and Christmas to take pictures of loved ones,family,friends and co workers. Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table! Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap. Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. This testing degree should cost less than a yeara€™s worth of tuition, books, and fees at university. Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics.
If your homeschool is anything like ours, every waking moment can be counted in some way as school for these records. If you blow off learning correct spelling, a variety of sentence structures, excellent essay structure, and good grammar, you may be able to get your point across but won't have elegant, articulate writing. All Bible-believing peoples share the same moral views even if from slightly different angles.
While it is true this is shorter than a regular bed, it is plenty of room for a small adult or average child.
Since founding csaccac Inc in 2010, as Founder and President,I fill many hats including Product Tester and photographer. I was selected to mop the floors as I was one of the few able bodied residents of this flop house able to mop floors; however, I had to be taught as I had never used a mop bucket equipped with a wringer. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them. Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats.
This book, the others in the series, and English Literature for Boys and Girls all help prepare youngsters for various literature tests as well as whetting the appetite for the best books.
First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. Although scoring well on tests isn't the main goal, it is a means to an end, the bachelor's degree. Understanding the connection between agency and anxiety is the first step in eliminating it from our lives. This easily reproduced table from IKEA fits wonderfully, making this a four function area: conversing, eating, studying, and sleeping. And truthfully speaking,in the beginning I experienced some difficulty;however,after I purchased my first digital camera I began to feel comfortable and enjoy the ease of taking pics with a digital camera. Putting testing aside, you will find inelegant writing to be a hindrance in other ways during your adult life.
We can choose not to become anxious today, right now by making this pledge: I will never become anxious again. Months after I purchased my first digital camera,I set my sights on a tripod, a universal stand to hold my digital camera. On the other hand, these twenty-five year old out of shape men had trouble with the physical training. The main reason I purchased a tripod__ at the time, I wanted to create high quality self pics and group pics.
For example, the dreaded double time runs under Route 101 to the rifle ranges on the Pacific Ocean were hell on these draftees; also, we wore boots, not tennis shoes. This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods.
Replace the word anxiety with any negative emotion or behavior as a plan for true success in life. Eventhough, I've had my tripod for some months,I am still learning the ins and outs of both my digital camera and tripod.
On the other hand, the volunteers, known as regular army, were to a large part recent high school graduates, and still in shape.
Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary. Well,if you havent guessed or envisioned what the featured product for the month of November 2013 looks like or remotely even resembles __then as productor tester I guess I'll do the honors first__it's my tripod. Eventually, I wanted to find out what the craze had been all about and the reason that consumers seemed to ofA  been trading in personal computers for Tablets,_well, at least leaving them at home. Ultimately, I placed online an order for a NookHD+ then opt to pick up the tech item from the store instead of waiting for it to be shipped to my place of residency.
AA  few weeks with the NookHD+, I was hooked_eventhough, IA  wasna€™t a fan of touchscreen only. And in all honesty, since the beginning of the Smart Phone craze, I had insisted upon that all of my primary tech gadgets used for work, research and blogging had to be equipped with a QWERTY keyboard.
However, in this particular instance,The NookHD+, again, touchscreen only, I made an exception. As I continued to learn the ins and outs of my newly purchased NookHD+ , at the same time, I began to inquire about the accessories compatible with the tech gadget.
In doing so, I foundA  the tech item had a Stylus Pen specifically made to use with the NookHD+. Weeks later, I purchased a different kind of Stylus Pen , I noticed while standing atA  the checkout counter at Walgreens,pictured next to this article is that Stylus Pen. Quite astonishing the Stylus Pen worked wellA  with both of my tech gadgets ( Smart Phone & Tablet). A frequent question a tantamount of consumers and shoppers find themselves entertaining especially during the holidays when manufacturers and retailers offer what they consider to be great deals and bargains.
After giving the device a run for its money as well as a brief critique of the various apps and functions,I stated in my review of the Nook HD+ how pleased I was with the tech gadget. Further into the critique, I also commented that I was soooo pleased with the tech gadget that I wanted to protect my investment.
Based on my income and budget,I considered the purchase of the Nook HD+ to be a major purchase of the year.
Shortly after, I purchased the Nook HD+,I began to look at the recommended accessories for the tech gadget. Eventually, after I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange 14 day trial period,I chose to protect my investment with a Nook HD+ cover. As I began to search and think of different items that could be the product of the month for September,I began to heavily weigh in on August's product of the month,the Nook HD+cover.
Hours later,I arrived to the assertion that there's more than one way to protect your investment.
With the assertion___, there's more than one way to protect your investment, I made the final choice to make Smart Phone covers as the product of the month for September.
Furthermore, within the past five years,Ive purchased several Smart Phones from Virgin Mobile.
To be truthful, I've even purchased Smart Phone insurance,a good choice because a few months later my Smart Phone had an accident. Despite all of the stuff I tried, sampled, tasted and tested during the recent months, as a result of a long review and critique besides from featuring the Smart Phone as a product of the month,I began to think of the different ways Ia€™ve used to protect my Smart Phone as an alternative product of the month. For instance,Smart Phone insurance has been one the ways I protect my investment from unexpected accidents.
Ostensibly, there's more than one way to protect your Smart Phone from accidents such as, for example, you accidentally drop and break your Smart Phone or in some weird, odd, freak accident as you rush out the door you accidentally step on your Smart Phone or heaven forbids the same thing happens to you that happen to me, a few months ago, I dropped my Smart Phone in the toilet. Without a question, eschewing further debate, Smart Phone insurance is a great investment for consumers and shoppers who use their Smart Phone daily and for work. Best of all, Smart Phone insurance usually saves the consumer from digging deep into their pockets.
So, what about before those mishaps and accidents, if you havena€™t figured it out__ there's more than one way to protect your investment. Even though, at first, I might of skipped over protecting my investments, I am more open to the idea of investing and protecting my major purchases.
Here's an example of what I am talking about, I currently have several Smart Phone covers to protect my Smart Phone from breakage, moisture, and malfunctioning. Varying in price,color,size and shape, most of today's Smart Phone manufacturers and retailers offer to consumers and shoppers Smart Phone covers as an accessory.
From passwords, to anti-theft apps, to screen locks and codes, there's more than one way to protect your investment.
Regardless of the price, and hopefully it is within your budget, a true frugal savvy shopper knows the importance of protecting their investment. Above everything else,both I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange process,quite remarkable,I even have the receipt to prove it. Unlike sooo manyA  items, I ve returned and exchanged in the past,__it,meaning my Nook HD+ survived the fourteenth days as printed on the receipt. A business practice that's part of Barnes and Noble store policy that allows customers fourteen days to return an item. In short,the 14th day, adhering to store policy was the final day that I couldA  actually return my Nook HD+ and get cash back. It goes without saying ,I readA  the instructions,totally unavoidable with a new tech gadget,as well as,downloaded apps,and,uploaded wallpapers. Not quite sure,on the day I purchased my Nook HD+__ifA  in fact, I would be satisfied with my purchase,I chose at the time not to purchase any kind of accessories. As it turns out,I was soooo pleased with my purchase of the Nook HD+,I wanted to protect my investments.
It doesnt matter if you're on lunch break,on a mini vacation,at a webinar or conference,filling out an online report or having to send emails can be a hassle if you don't have a wifi connection,a Broadband device is just one of the many tech gadgets that consumers and shoppers frequently use to get an internet connection. Constantly,on the go,I wanted to have access to wifiA  while away from my place of residency.
Because,I perform an arrary task that frequently requires wifi access ,I purchased a Broadband to Go device from Virgin Mobile. Egregiously,as a Virgin Mobile customer and fan,I live by Virgin Mobile products except in the case of Virgin Mobile wifi devices. Recently,I purchased Virgin Mobile's MiFi 2200 to conciliate my worries about not being able to access wifi home. Aside from very slow internet speed,the device could only connect to one tech gadget and,the 3G USB plug n play stick broke too easily. Affordable,great to have on hand for shopping emergencies,the latest in recycling,a recyclable tote makes shopping less of a hassle. Ditching the old biodegradeable plastic bags for a recyclable tote,it's a smart move and a great investment for frugal,savvy,and environmentally conscious consumers and shoppers.Available in most local chain stores and at grocery stores,recyclable totes are becoming the better choice than leaving stores with the traditional biodegradeable plastic bag. Part of a movement to get consumers and shoppers involved in recycling and to think about going green,consumers and shoppers now have the option of trading in those plastic bags for a recyclable tote. A frequent shopper,I usually purchase a couple of recyclable totes to hold store purchases and other stuff. Eventhough,I like having the choice to purchase a recyclable tote,I havent completely stop using biodegradeable plastic bags.
However,I have to point out the fact that when a consumer and shoppers purchase a recyclable tote they're not limited to using the tote only in that store,that's why they're called recyclable totes because they can be used more than once.
In fact, most recycable totes last for more than a week,I should know because I still have a few leftover from the previous month. A great deal,a really good find,a price you wont find anywhere else,and the best price among competitors,I love a great sale and I love rewards for shopping.
Savings and Rewards,for most consumers and shoppers,it's all about getting the best price for items purchase daily.
From household supplies to groceries,anyone who shops frequently knows consumers and shoppers love a really good sale_,the economic recession of 2008 could be the culprit. In fact,since the 2008 economic recession savings and rewards has become extremely important to American families on a budget.
For many American consumers and shoppers,the unexpected downturn of the American economy caused a disruption in their daily activies thus forcing consumer and shoppers to rethink the way they shop and how they shop. As a frequent shopper and consumer,I am constantly looking for a great deal and sales on items I purchase regularly,mainly because I do live on a strict budget. Admittedly,after the 2008 economic recession,I rediscovered coupons,and began clipping coupons frequently.
In addition to clipping coupons,I also began to check sale ads at home and at the door of stores before shopping. Along with making a shopping list,clipping coupons at home,checking sale ads at the door and comparing prices,these days one of the best ways to save and get the best deals,I feel without a question has to be with a savings and reward card. And speaking honestly, a savings and rewards card from your local chain store should be a consumer or shoppers BF(bestie). A must have for consumers and shoppers who seriously want to save,a savings and rewards card. Throughout the years, my experience with last minute shopping in most instances was not too pleasant. Admittedly,I empathize as well as concur with consumers who express sentiments that last minute shopping makes the shopper(consumer) feel uncomfortable and forlorn with the just thought of buying a gift at the last minute. Often tight on funds to purchase a gift ahead of time,last minute shopping for an overwhelmed consumer with a limited budget could cause the consumer to be late and in some instance not to attend the event or special function. Subsequently, over the years, I have come to realize that last minute shopping it's not the best of fun.
As a result, I definitely would not recommend last minute shopping to a consumer as a shopping tip. Unequivocally, shopping for special events and functions such as finding an appropriate could take several visits different stores. Finding the appropriate could mean spending an entire day in a Hallmark store reading cards, it could also mean spending all day on the phone with friend or relatives discussing gift registry,preferences,stores,likes and dislike of the recipient.
Ostensibly,the older you get the adults in your life expect two things from you one not to embarrass them in public and two if you don't have a gift to bring at least show up at special functions on time.
Indeed, an earnest shopper as well as a meticulous shopper knows finding the right gift or card for a special function could require hours of shopping and visiting different stores.
Shopping done precipitously could result in purchasing the wrong size,color, or something way out in left field. Don't wait until the last minute to shop for a party,baby showers,bachelorette bash,birthdays,holidays ,and anniversaries avoid uncomfortableness and the feeling of being inadequate,plan the week before.
On certain days, I have even shopped the day of the event that often leaves me feeling embarrassed ashamed, and guilty about my finances even worse depress.
Incontrovertibly,last minute shopping in many instances could causes the consumer to become distraught,exasperated, and disconcerted not surprisingly all the emotions take away from the planned day. What's more important being punctilious for the planned event or arriving with a hand picked gift for the recipient or recipients? Ultimately,the answer remains with the shopper (consumer) The answer should be non bias and based on the event as well as the recipient and not the shoppers wallet .
The meticulous consumer that normally keeps track of birthdays, holidays,and anniversaries with calendars,through emails,P DA's ,Smart phones and other tech savvy gadgets of courses would not necessarily share the same feelings of a last minute shopper .



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