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Published 15.08.2015 | Author : admin | Category : The Respect Principle Pdf

In a separate reference, it says marriage could also be "(in some jurisdictions) a union between partners of the same sex".
LGBT rights activists have argued that this secondary reference is discriminatory, saying that if it is law in any country it should be on the same ranking as a heterosexual union. The spokeswoman added: "We are constantly monitoring usage in this area in order to consider what revisions and updates we may need to make. Other countries with marriage equality, such as Canada, define marriage by avoiding gender.
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With all the new words, the 3rd edition is due for publication in 2037 and the current editor reckons it will only be online by then.
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Recently wed actress and executive producer Sarah Gilbert announces her pregnancy during a "Face Your Fears" dare on daytime television.
Two women's colleges with a long, admirable history announce a big, positive change in who they will admit and why.
Madame Vastra and Jenny Flint delight fans with a real-life prime time kiss on the season's first episode of Dr.
Uzo Aduba takes Creative Arts Emmy award for her guest actress role as "Crazy Eyes" in Orange Is The New Black.
Facebook outed as 2nd largest contributor to contributor to Utah Attorney General, Sean Reyes, staunch opponent to same-sex marriage.
Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
Turkish Miniature & Painting Workshops,(2 Hours Lesson - Per Student ) ,2 - 5 Student,55 Euro ,6 - more 40 Euro ,1 Student,65 Euro ,Lesson Includes.
The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook. In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period. Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace. Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture. The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns.
Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt. The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life.
The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire.
Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century. Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire. Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems. The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction.
At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.
Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings. In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers. Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues.
A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression. The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events. Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”. Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3. This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). While Ptolemy is most frequently associated with geography and cartography, he also wrote important works in a number of other fields including astronomy, astrology, music and optics. Although no original manuscript of this text has survived the ravages of time, several manuscript copies, dating from the closing centuries of the Byzantine Empire (ca. For these and other reasons, Ptolemy knew mathematics to be an important part of cartography.
The first Book of the Geographia is devoted primarily to theoretical principles, including a discussion of globe construction, the description of two map projections, and an extended, through amicable, criticism of his primary source, Marinus of Tyre, a€?the latest of the geographers of our timea€?. In another chapter in Book I, Ptolemy wrote that there are two ways of making a portrait of the world: one is to reproduce it on a sphere, and the other is to draw it on a plane surface. If the second method of drawing the earth is used, that is, if the spherical earth is projected onto a plane surface, certain adjustments are obviously necessary. Ptolemya€™s exhaustive criticism of the imperfect methods of drawing maps adopted by Marinus would lead to the expectation that he himself would have used some of his own recommended projections in constructing his maps. Book II of the Geographia opens with a prologue a€?of the particular descriptionsa€?, which is to say, the maps he was about to present, and a general statement of his mapmaking policy. The fifth chapter of Book VII contains a description of the map of the world, together with an enumeration of the oceans and of the more important bays and islands. In the eighth and last Book of the Geographia, Ptolemy returned to the business of discussing the principles of cartography, mathematical, geographical and astronomical methods of observation, and, in some cases (manuscript or printed copies) there follow short legends for each of the special maps - ten for Europe, four for Africa and twelve for Asia - mentioning the countries laid down on each plate, describing the limits, and enumerating the tribes of each country and its most important towns. Those scholars who have argued that Ptolemya€™s original text contained no maps have neglected careful study of this Book. The obvious way to avoid crowding, Ptolemy said, is to make separate maps of the most populous regions or sectional maps combining densely populated areas with countries containing few inhabitants, if such a combination is feasible.
The illustration above gives a diagram of the parts of the known world embraced by each special map found in Ptolemya€™s Geographia. While there is little doubt still lingering that Ptolemya€™s text was originally illustrated by maps, it is not altogether certain that the maps found today in existing copies of the Geographia are indeed similar to those of the original series of maps, since the latter have not survived for comparison. To further confound the issue, all of the other manuscript copies of the Geographia that are accompanied by maps differ one from another, presenting two basic versions.
The other version, B, contains sixty-four maps distributed throughout the text, vice collected together in one place. Over and above these maps, those manuscripts with maps, both A- and B-versions, are additionally illustrated with a universal map of the entire known world at Ptolemya€™s time, either on one sheet or four sheets; only very rarely are both world maps found together. As with modern maps, Ptolemaic maps are oriented so that North would be at the top and East at the right, because better known localities of the world were to be found in the northern latitudes, and on a flat map they would be easier to study if they were in the upper right-had corner. Displayed on the left-had margin of these world maps are seven Clima [Klima] and Parallel Zones. Overall Ptolemya€™s world-picture extended northward from the equator a distance of 31,500 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade] to 63A° N at Thule, and southward to a part of Ethiopia named Agysimba and Cape Prasum at 16A° S latitude, or the same distance south as Meroe was north.
It has been repeatedly pointed out that the distances set down by Ptolemy in his tables for the Mediterranean countries, the virtual center of the habitable world, are erroneous beyond reason, considering the fact that Roman Itineraries were accessible.
The geographical errors made by Ptolemy in his text and maps constitute the principle topic of many scholarly dissertations. Paradoxically, Ptolemya€™s eastward extension of Asia, reducing the length of the unknown part of the world, coupled with his estimate of the circumference of the earth, was his greatest contribution to history if not cartography. Ptolemy provides a descriptive summary in his text in which he tells us that the habitable part of the earth is bounded on the south by the unknown land which encloses the Indian Sea and that it encompasses Ethiopia south of Libya, called Agisymba. The southern limit of the habitable world had been fixed by Eratosthenes (#112) and Strabo (#115) at the parallel through the eastern extremity of Africa, Cape Guardafiri, the cinnamon-producing country and the country of the SembritA¦ [Senaai].
Ptolemy records, following Marinus, the penetration of Roman expeditions to the land of the Ethiopians and to Agisymba, a region of the Sudan beyond the Sahara desert, perhaps the basin of Lake Chad, and he supplied other new information regarding the interior of North Africa. The eastern coast of Africa was better known than the western, having been visited by Greek and Roman traders as far as Rhapta [Rhaptum Promontory opposite Zanzibar?] which Ptolemy placed at about 7A° S. According to Greek tradition, an extension of 20A° in the width of the habitable world called for a proportionate increase in its length.
Ptolemya€™s knowledge of the vast region from Sarmatia to China was, however, better than that of previous map makers. Many faults appear in Ptolemya€™s picture of southern Asia, although for more than a century commercial relations between western India and Alexandria had been flourishing.
Even the more familiar territory of the Mediterranean basin demonstrated that insufficient contemporary knowledge was available and Ptolemy erred in many important cartographical details. Map on grid system, in Ptolemy, La geographia, 1561-64, 26 x 14 cm, a€?Oxford University Byw.
However, Ptolemy was apparently the first of the ancient geographers to have a fair conception of the relations between the Tanais, usually considered the northern boundary between Europe and Asia, and the Rha [Volga], which he said flowed into the Caspian Sea. In spite of the egregious errors on all of Ptolemya€™s maps, his atlas was indeed an unsurpassed masterpiece for almost 1,500 years. During the intellectual narrow-mindedness of the Middle Ages even Ptolemy and his methods of map construction were forgotten, at least in the west. The presently known version of Ptolemya€™s works began to surface when the Byzantine monk Maximos Planudes (1260 - 1310) succeeded in finding and purchasing a manuscript copy of the Geographia.
Another scholar of the Byzantine age is known to have been interested in Ptolemya€™s Geographia - the noted polyhistor Nikephoras Gregoras (1295 - c. In 1400 a Greek manuscript copy of the A-version (twenty-six maps) was obtained from Constantinople by the Florentine patron of letters, Palla Strozzi, who persuaded Emmanual Chrysoloras, a Byzantine scholar, to translate the text into Latin.
Again, the original manuscript of Angelusa€™ translation and the first maps of Ptolemy in the Latin language have not survived, but a manuscript copy, dated 1427, prepared under the direction of Cardinal Fillastre, can be found in the library at Nancy, France (thus known as the Nancy Codex). In manuscript form, four other cartographers are significant in editing and influencing the evolution of Ptolemya€™s atlas. After the discovery of copper-plate and wood-engraving, Ptolemya€™s atlas became one of the first great works for the reproduction of which these arts were employed. The Canada Space Dictionary describes it as "the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce)". Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known.
In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons. For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state. In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court. These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz.
A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders.
A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak. Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library. These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand. The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display.
The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah.
Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase. The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day.
The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society.
The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs.
In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent.
The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans.
Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts.
To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation.
The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events.
Seems either no one is talking about louis daguerre at this moment on GOOGLE-PLUS or the GOOGLE-PLUS service is congested. Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ.
The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743. He composed a Table of Reigns, a chronological list of Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman sovereigns dating from Nabonasar to Antoninus Pius, a biographical history of kingship. He was interested in the earth, all of it, not just the habitable part, and tried to fit it into a scheme of the universe where it belonged. Marinus had given this matter considerable thought, rejecting all previously devised methods of obtaining congruity on a flat map; yet, according to Ptolemy he had finally selected the least satisfactory method of solving the problem.
There is also an introduction to data collection, evaluation, preparations for drawing, how and in what order to mark boundaries, and how to use the appended tables. When traveling overland it is usually necessary to diverge from a straight line course in order to avoid inevitable land-barriers; and at sea, where winds are changeable, the speed of a vessel varies considerably, making it difficult to estimate over-water distances with any degree of accuracy. The Indian Ocean, which is assumed to be bordered on the south by an unknown continent, uniting southern Africa with eastern Asia, is stated to be the largest sea surrounded by land. It is these legends which, in some editions, have been placed on the reverse of the maps, and they appear to have been originally intended for that purpose.
In Chapter Two Ptolemy said, a€?It remains for us to show how we set down all places, so that when we divide one map into several maps we may be able to accurately locate all of the well-known places through the employment of easily understood and exact measurements.a€? On the other hand, some scholars even go so far as to say that maps were already drawn before certain portions of the text was addressed, so that they could be used as models for the completion of other portions of the text. For instance, in a single map embracing the entire earth, he said, there is a tendency to sacrifice proportion, that is, scale, in order to get everything on the map.
If several regional maps are made to supplement the general world map, they need not a€?measure the same distance between the circlesa€?, that is, be drawn to the same scale, provided the correct relation between distance and direction is preserved. It demonstrates how Ptolemya€™s world had been systematically divided into twenty-six regions, each of which is mapped on a separate sheet.
The reason for this doubt lies in the question of authorship of the maps which accompany extant copies. According to map historian Leo Bagrow, one version, A, contains twenty-six large maps included in the eighth Book of the text, each folded in half and, on the back, having a statement of the region portrayed, its bounds and a list of principle towns.
In some manuscripts of the B-version, and in those without maps, the texts from the backs of the maps are combined together in a special edition, divided into chapters numbered 3-28.
Of the Greek manuscripts of the Geographia, as a whole or in part, known today, eleven of the A-version and five of the B-version have maps.
The meridians are spaced from each other a€?the third part of an equinoctial hour, that is, through five of the divisions marked on the equatora€?. In Ptolemya€™s time, the latitude, or distance from the equator, was generally astronomically calculated from the length of the longest and the shortest day. The numbers on the right of the Clima give the number of hours in the longest day at different latitudes, increasing from 12 hours at the equator to 24 hours at the Arctic Circle. The a€?breadtha€? of the habitable world according to Ptolemy then equates to 39,500 stades [3,950 miles]. The earth was only 18,000 miles around at the equator; Poseidonius had stated it, Strabo substantiated it, and Ptolemy perpetuated it on his maps.
Of these, the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean] is the largest, Our Sea [the Mediterranean] is the next and the Hyrcanian [Caspian] is the smallest.
This parallel also passed through Taprobane usually considered the southernmost part of Asia. As to the source of the Nile, both Greeks and Romans had tried to locate it, but without success. Ptolemy extended the west coast of Africa with a free hand, and even though he reduced the bulge made by Marinus more than half, it was still way out of control. He shows, for the first time, a fairly clear idea of the great north-south dividing range of mountains of Central Asia, which he called Imaus, but he placed it nearly 40A° too far east and made it divide Scythia into two parts: Scythia Intra Imaum and Scythia Extra Imaum Montem [Within Imaus and Beyond Imaus]. His Mediterranean is about 20A° too long, and even after correcting his lineal value of a degree it was still about 500 geographical miles too long. Ptolemy was also the first geographer, excepting Alexander the Great, to return to the correct view advanced by Herodotus and Aristotle, that the Caspian was an inland sea without communication with the ocean (the Christian medieval cartographers were a long time in returning to this representation of the Caspian). Its wealth of detail still constitutes one of the most important sources of information for the historian and student of ancient geography. Many of the legends and conventional signs that he used are still employed by cartographers with only slight modifications. Ptolemya€™s works were, however, thriving and contributing valuable insight to knowledgeable Arabs and those having access and understanding of the Arab or Greek language (it was only in the Islamic states and in these languages that the works of the Alexandrian scientist were preserved (see monographs #212, #213, #214-17, lbn Said, al-lstakhri, Ibn Hauqal, al-Kashgari, etc.
Very few scholars, let alone other literate persons in Western Europe were familiar with the Greek language at this time, therefore this translation was a great stimulus to a€?popularizinga€? Ptolemy. Curiously enough it was first printed at Vincenza in 1475 (the date printed of 1462 is in error) without maps! The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480. The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period. Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets. Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century. While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions. We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection. In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new. There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century.


Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture. In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an. There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting.
The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject.
Little is known personally of this pivotal man aside from the general period during which he was active ca.
His Analemma was mathematical description of a sphere projected on a plane, subsequently known as an a€?orthographic projection,a€? which greatly simplified the study of gnomonics. He was also interested in the relationships between the earth and the sun, the earth and the moon, in scientific cause and effect of climate; and above all, he was concerned with a scientifically accurate portrayal of the spherical earth in a convenient readable form.
These Byzantine copies of the Geographia are comprised of eight a€?Booksa€? which Ptolemy introduces by supplying two very influential definitions - that of chorography and geography. Marinus had laid out a grid of strait lines equidistant from one another for both his parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Because while Ptolemy employs his conical projection in his first general world map, for the remaining twenty-six special regional maps he uses the rectangular projection of Marinus with due observance of the ratio between the longitude and latitude at the base of the map. Books II-VI and the first four chapters of Book VII are devoted to a complete catalogue of some 8,000 inhabited localities laid down in the twenty-six special maps of the geography. Nevertheless Ptolemy concluded that the most reliable way of determining distances was by astronomical observation, and by no other method could one expect to fix positions accurately.
In addition, a description of a projection of the inhabited hemisphere on a plane, by which it could retain its circular outline, or globular aspect is also given. The better known regions have many place-names, while the lesser known have few, and, unless the map is carefully drawn, it will have some crowded, illegible areas, and some where distances are unduly extended.
Ptolemy repeated that it would be not too far from the truth if instead of circles we draw straight lines for meridians and parallels.
Generally these sheets are of about the same size, but the scales vary according to the space required for the legends. Did Ptolemy actually design and construct the maps himself, were they made by a draftsman working under his supervision, or were they added, perhaps as late as 1450, by an energetic editor who thought the text needed some graphic emendation?
The geographical coordinates of these towns are given, not in degrees, but in time; the longitude is expressed in hours and minutes corresponding to the distance from the meridian of Alexandria (one hour = 15 degrees, one minute = 15 minutes of a degree), and the latitude is expressed in terms of the length of the longest day, in hours and minutes (the greater the distance from the equator, the longer the day in summer).
Some of the manuscripts without maps contain references to accompanying maps, since lost, and in others, spaces have been left for maps to be inserted. In other words, the total span of twelve hours, representing the length of the habitable world, was to be partitioned by a series of thirty-six meridians spaced five degrees apart at the equator and converging at the North Pole. The earth was accordingly divided into a number of zones, parallel to the equator and within which these days had a certain length, for instance of 12 -13, or 15 -16 hours. Ptolemy a€?correcteda€? this length to 180A° (9,000 miles), still 50A° (2,500 miles) too long, an error arising from using the Fortunate Islands as his prime meridian which he placed about seven degrees (350 miles) too far to the east. It is very unlikely, in view of the secrecy attached to all maps and surveys of the Roman Empire. This a€?shorter distancea€? that a mariner would have to travel west from the shores of Spain in order to reach the rich trading centers of Asia may have contributed to Columbusa€™ belief, or that of his royal sponsors, that they could compete with their rival neighbors, Portugal, in the newly opened sea-trade with India by sailing west. The Emperor Nero had sent an expedition into Upper Egypt, and it had penetrated as far as the White Nile, about 9A° N latitude.
On the same approximate parallel he located the region called Agisymba, inhabited by Ethiopians and abounding in rhinoceri, supposedly discovered by Julius Maternus, a Roman general. A more obvious area to stretch the length of the world was in eastern Asia where there was every likelihood of additional territory yet unexplored.
Asia and Africa are extended considerably to the east and south, far more so than on any previous maps, but not without cause.
His Mare Nostrum, from Marseilles to the opposite point on the coast of Africa, is 11A° of latitude instead of the actual 6.5A°. This is especially true in the study of the earliest tribes that encompassed the Roman Empire in the first century of the Christian era, who were at that time barbarians, but who later bore the burden of civilization in Europe.
He originated the practice of orienting maps so that North is at the top and East to the right, a custom so universal today that many people are lost when they try to read a map oriented any other way. Planudes constructed a map based upon the instructions found in Ptolemya€™s eight books and subsequently, through Athanasios, Patriarch of Alexandria, had a copy of the Geographia, with maps made for Emperor Andronicus III. He is also credited with the four-page world map found in some manuscripts, chiefly the B-version. When Chrysoloras was unable to complete the translation, it was finished by one of his students, Jacobus Angelus of Scarparia, between 1406 and 1410. In all, seven editions were printed in the 15th century, of which six were provided with large maps in folio, and thirty-three in the following century (a selected list taken from Tooley accompanies this monograph). The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below.
In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found. One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R. His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style.
This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century.
We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli. According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils. The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia.
Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style. While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base. Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century.
As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin. Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality. His work entitled PlanisphA¦rium [the Planisphere], described a sphere projected on the equator, the eye being at the pole, a projection later known as a€?stereographica€?. More than any one of the ancients, Claudius Ptolemy succeeded in establishing the elements and form of scientific cartography. He defines chorography as being selective and regional in approach, a€?even dealing with the smallest conceivable localities, such as harbors, farms, villages, river courses, and the likea€?. Its position under the heavens is extremely important, for in order to describe any given part of the world one must know under what parallel of the celestial sphere it is located. He seems to have studied and made astronomical observations in Tyre, the oldest and largest city of Phoenicia, which, even at that late date, maintained important commercial relations with remote parts of the world. This was contrary to both truth and appearance, and the resulting map was badly distorted with respect to distance and direction, for if the eye is fixed on the center of the quadrant of the sphere which we take to be our inhabited world, it is readily seen that the meridians curve toward the North Pole and that the parallels, though they are equally spaced on the sphere, give the impression of being closer together near the poles. Traditional information regarding distances should be subordinated, especially the primitive sort, for tradition varies from time to time, and if it must enter into the making of maps at all, it is expedient to compare the records of the ancient past with newer records, a€?deciding what is credible and what is incrediblea€?. It is remarkable that such questions never seemed to have occurred to Ptolemy, as: What is there to be found beyond Serica and Sinarum Situs? Ptolemy himself never actually employed this manner of projection, which has since, through more or less modified, been preferred by geographers for maps representing one of the hemispheres. Some map makers have a tendency to exaggerate the size of Europe because it is most populous, and to contract the length of Asia because little is known about the eastern part of it. As for his own policy, he said, a€?in the separate maps we shall show the meridians themselves not inclined and curved but at an equal distance one from another, and since the termini of the circles of latitude and of longitude of the habitable earth, when calculated over great distances do not make any remarkable excesses, so neither is there any great difference in any of our mapsa€?. As this diagram shows, each regional map would encompass, besides its own proper territory, some parts of the neighboring countries. Ptolemy does not state specifically in his text whether he personally made any maps, and proponents of the theory that Ptolemy made no maps for this Geographia base their case on the notation in two of the existing manuscript copies, that a cartographer named AgathodA¦mon of Alexandria was the author of the accompanying map(s).
It is no less difficult, also, to determine when the maps of the two versions (A and B) were made. The meridians in the southern hemisphere are extended from the equator at the same angle as those above it, but instead of converging at the South Pole they terminated at the parallel 8A° 25a€™ below the equator.
The concept of the division of the earth into zones began as early as the sixth century B.C. While Ptolemya€™s map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination.
More specifically, Ptolemya€™s knowledge concerning the fringes of the habitable world and civilization was broader than earlier writers, such as Strabo (#115), but in some respects it was a little confused.
With Thule as the northern limit of Ptolemya€™s habitable world, he thus extended the breadth of this world from less than 60A° (Eratosthenes and Strabo) to nearly 80A°.
The silk trade with China had produced rumors of vast regions east of the Pamir and Tian Shan, hitherto the Greek limits of Asia. These distortions represented an actual extension of geographical knowledge and are doubtless based on exaggerated reports of distances traveled. 80) containing sailing directions from the Red Sea to the Indus and Malabar, indicated that the coast from Barygaza [Baroch] had a general southerly trend down to and far beyond Cape Korami [Comorin], and suggested a peninsula in southern India.
While Ptolemy's map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. To be sure, there are other geographical fragments, individual maps and charts, isolated examples of the best in Greek, Roman, and Arabic cartography, but Ptolemya€™s Geographia is the only extant geographical atlas which has come down to us from the ancients. His map projections, the conical and modified spherical, as well as the orthographic and stereographic systems developed in the Almagest, are still in use. This particular copy has not been recovered, however another copy attributed to Planudes is preserved, in part, in the monastery of Vatopedi on Mount Athos.
It was also during this time, the 14th century, that the twenty-six maps of the A-version were divided up into sixty-four.
This oldest Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (confusingly and arbitrarily titled Cosmographia by Angelus) was at first disseminated in numerous, often splendidly decorated manuscript copies. A re-issue of the preceding, but with a new title-page, an account of the New World by Marcus Beneventanus, and a new map of the world by Ruysch, Nova Tabula. The most important edition of Ptolemy, containing the 27 maps of the ancient world and 20 maps based on contemporary knowledge, under the superintendence of Martin WaldseemA?ller. Maps, with the exception of Asia V, printed from the same blocks as 1522 edition, and like them almost unaltered copies on a reduced scale of the maps of the 1513 edition. After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace. Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720).
Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application. The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism.
90 to 168 (during the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius) and that he lived in, or near, Alexandria Egypt.
This he did through his second great treatise, Geographike Syntaxis, called by him, a€?the geographical guide to the making of mapsa€?, and, in later centuries, shortened to simply Geographia, or (incorrectly) Cosmographia. Geography, he said, differs from chorography in that it deals with a€?a representation in picture of the whole known world together with the phenomena that are contained thereina€?. Otherwise how can one determine the length of its days and nights, the stars which are fixed overhead, the stars which appear nightly over the horizon and the stars which never rise above the horizon at all. This a€?tutora€™ of Ptolemy had read nearly all of the historians before him and had corrected many of their errors (presumable errors relating to the location of places as contained in travelersa€™ itineraries). Ptolemy was well aware that it would be desirable to retain a semblance of spherical proportions on his flat map, but at the same time he decided to be practical about it.
With one exception (an Italian translation by Berlinghieri), every editor of Ptolemya€™s Geographia has published, not the original maps, but a modification of them by Nicolaus Germanus (Donis), who, with praiseworthy exactness and without any further alterations, reproduced the originals, on a projection with rectilinear, equidistant parallels and meridians converging towards the poles. It is an exception when geographical or descriptive remarks are added to this bare enumeration of names.
Therefore if a geographer were obliged to fall back on the reports of travelers, he should exercise some discrimination in his choice of authorities.
What could be found to the north of Thule, or to the south of Agysimba and Cape Prasum: Where would you arrive if you sailed westward from the Fortunate Islands? And some cartographers surround the earth on all sides with an ocean that, according to Ptolemy are a€?making a fallacious description, and an unfinished and foolish picturea€?. But, as is also usual in modern atlases, these neighboring areas of the map are only roughly sketched, while the principle area is shown in full detail. From these same manuscripts it is stated that a€?he drew them according to the instructions in the eight books of Claudius Ptolemya€?.
Certain indications point to the Byzantine period, with the exception of AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map.
And it is highly probable that Ptolemy the astronomer, who is usually discredited by later geographers because of his methods and the kinds of information he compiled, had no more standing among some of his influential contemporaries than he would today in the most approved geographical circles of the civilized world. The only good reason for discussing a few of the glaring faults of the Geographia is that it was the canonical work on the subject for more than 1400 years. In the northern regions, for example, he had been ill-advised with regard to Ireland, and positioned it further north than any part of Wales; likewise, Scotland was twisted around so that its length ran nearly east and west. Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times.
All such information was of doubtful origin, and in laying down the coastline of Eastern Asia, Ptolemy ran the line roughly north and south. Ptolemy, apparently following Marinus, ignored this document, or else never saw it because the shape of his India is unduly broadened and foreshortened. Leaving the habitable world from the Strait at the Pillars of Hercules to the Gulf of Issus, it passed through Caralis in Sardinia and Lilybaeum in Sicily (30A° 12a€™ and 37A° 50a€™ N).
Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception, or any later one until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times.
There is nothing in the literature to indicate that any other such systematic collection of maps was ever compiled, with the exception of the maps of Marinus, about which almost nothing is known, save what Ptolemy has mentioned.
The listing of place-names, either in geographical or alphabetical order, with the latitude and longitude of each place to guide the search, is not so different from the modern system of letters and numerals employed to help the reader, a little convenience that is standard on modern maps and Ptolemaic in origin.
Four new mapsa€”France, Italy, Spain and Palestinea€”being based on contemporary knowledge.
The map of the world is the first to show contemporary discoveries, and the first map to bear the name of its engraver, Johannes Schnitzer de Armssheim. The other 6 mapsa€”northern Europe, Spain, France, Poland, Italy and the Holy Landa€”are based on contemporary knowledge. Includes the Tabula Terra Nova, the first map specifically devoted to the delineation of the New World.
Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989). At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent. The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608. The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95). Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made.
After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted. His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting. Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced. Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi.
Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam. From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book.
During the second century, Alexandria was not only the richest city in the world, with regard to learned institutions and treasures of scholarship, but also the wealthiest commercial place on the earth.
This work is actually the first general atlas of the world to have survived, rather than a a€?Geographya€? with a long textual introduction to the subject of cartography. As he proceeds to elaborate his definition of geography, it becomes apparent that Ptolemy conceived that the primary function of geography was a€?mapmakinga€?, and that, to him, geography was synonymous with cartography.
He had, moreover, edited and revised his own geographic maps, of which at least two editions had been published before Ptolemy saw them. Finally, Ptolemy thought, about all one could do was to locate unfamiliar places as accurately as possible with reference to well-known places, in as much as it is advisable on a map of the entire world to assign a definite position to every known place, regardless of how little is known about it.
The longitudes would be determined from the meridian of Alexandria, either at sunrise or sunset, calculating the difference in equinoctial hours between Alexandria and point two, whatever it might be. As mentioned earlier, the original text called for twenty-six regional or special maps, which in all extant manuscript copies bear a strong family resemblance and are laid down on the projection apparently used by Marinus in the form of isosceles trapezoids. However, this statement has never been dated and, confusingly, AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map employs a projection unlike any proposed by Ptolemya€™s text. But, again, when they were constructed - totally and faithfully copied from the originals, or constructed from Ptolemya€™s instructions but without benefit of original models - is significant in trying to determine the degree of similarity to their a€?prototypea€™ and the possibility of additions or corrections based upon more contemporary knowledge. Different from what is now accepted as the meaning, this word in ancient maps had a purely geographical, not a meteorological significance, although they also perceived that the climate of a region was somewhat related to its distance from the equator. Similarly he showed the length of the Mediterranean as 62A°, whereas, in reality it is only 42A°. Geographers of the 15th and 16th centuries relied on it so heavily, while ignoring the new discoveries of maritime explorers, that it actually exerted a powerful retarding influence on the progress of cartography. Instead of continuing it to the Land of the LinA¦ [seacoast of China] he curved it around to the east and south, forming a great bay, Sinus Magnus [roughly the Gulf of Siam]. Carthage is positioned 1A° 20a€™ south of the parallel of Rhodes; actually it is one degree north of it. Corrected and amended by a succession of editors, this version also formed the basis upon which all of the editions of the 15th century are built. The text is a metrical paraphrase by Francesco Berlinghieri, and is the first edition in Italian.
The greatly increased number of a€?modern mapsa€? makes this in effect the first modern atlas.


The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life.
This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish. The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting. The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits. The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque.
In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude. It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century.
The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. It was a place where seafaring people and caravans from all parts of the known world would use to congregate, thereby providing the opportunity to collect knowledge of far away lands and seas. Here for the first time are documented the duties and responsibilities of the mapmaker, his limitations, and the nature of the materials he was to work with. The final drafts were nearly free from defects and his text, which we know of only through Ptolemy, was so reliable in Ptolemya€™s estimation that a€?it would seem to be enough for us to describe the earth on which we dwell from his commentaries alone, without other investigations.a€? According to Ptolemy, the most significant feature of the maps of Marinus was the growth of the habitable world and the changed attitude toward the uninhabited parts. When such a conical surface is extended on a plane, a network with circular parallels and rectilinear, converging meridians arise. Unlike Marinus who listed longitude on one page and latitude on another, Ptolemy began the tradition of listing the positional coordinates together and in a usable system that was practical to follow.
Some of the other conspicuously modern conventions include the previously noted lack of ornamentation, his method of differentiating land and water, rivers and towns, by means of either hachures or different colors, and his use of a€?standardizeda€™ symbols all of which is accepted at first glance without a thought being given to the origin of the technique.
This particular world map is usually found at the end of Book VII, preceded by three chapters containing some practical advice, a general description of all known areas of the world and the three principle seas (the Mediterranean, the Caspian and the Indian Ocean), with their bays and islands, and instructions for drawing a sphere and maps on a plane surface. It is noteworthy here to point out that, regardless of when these existing manuscript reproductions were made, they somehow escaped the pictorial fancies such as sketches of animals, monsters, savages, ships, kings, etc. The eastward extension of Asia is also exaggerated, measuring about 110A° from the coast of Syria to the outermost limits of China, instead of the true distance of about 85A°. The Geographia was both a keystone and a millstone, a pioneering effort that outlived its usefulness. The northern coast of Germany beyond Denmark, Cimbrica Chersonese, is shown as the margin of the Northern Ocean, and running in a general east-west direction. Continuing it around to the south until it joined Terra Incognita at the southern limit of the habitable world, he made a lake of the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean]. For the most part, the lands beyond the Ganges were not well known until a thousand years later when the brothers Polo first acquainted western Europe with the existence of a number of large islands in that part of the world. Byzantium is placed in the same latitude as Massilia, which made it more than two degrees north of its true position.
It is also the only edition with maps printed on the original projection with equidistant parallels or meridians. There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting.
However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character. Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio. The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent.
Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work. Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence. Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. In spite of such scant personal knowledge, Claudius Ptolemya€™s writings have had a greater influence on cartography, and on geography in general, than that of any other single figure in history. 141), a composition dealing with astronomy and mathematics, more commonly known by its hybrid Greco-Arabic title, the Almagest, in which he lays down the foundation of trigonometry and sets forth his view of the universe. This single treatise remained the standard work on geographical theory throughout the Middle Ages, was not superseded as such with the 16th century, and constitutes one of the fundamental tenants of modern geodesy. Cartography is not an artistic endeavor according to the Greek scholar, but should be concerned with the relation of distance and direction, and with the important features of the eartha€™s surface that can be indicated by plain lines and simple notations (enough to indicate general features and fix positions).
Marinus was a good man in Ptolemya€™s estimation but he lacked the critical eye and allowed himself to be led astray in his scientific investigations.
Lest the proportions of certain parts of the mapped territory should be too much deformed, only the northern or the southern hemispheres should be laid down on the same map by this projection, which is consequently inconvenient for maps embracing the whole earth. This particular projection shown of the general map of the habitable world, the one believed to be employed by Ptolemy in his original general map, is laid down in the lazy mana€™s projection he talked about, the modified conic instead of the spherical projection that he recommended for a faithful delineation of the eartha€™s surface. Many scholars ascribe these three chapters to AgathodA¦mon, as the descriptive text for his map. As can be seen from these world maps, Ptolemy divided the northern hemisphere into twenty-one parallels, noted, again, in the margin of this maps. To judge, therefore, from the map, Ptolemy discarded both the older Greek belief that the earth was surrounded by water, and Herodotusa€™ description of the Phoeniciana€™s circumnavigation of Africa. And there were no good maps of the East Indian Archipelago until after the Portuguese voyages to the Indies. This particular error threw the whole Euxine Pontus [Black Sea], whose general form and dimensions were fairly well known, too far north by the same amount, over 100 miles. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation.
After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance. By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts.
Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period. Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it. Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting).
The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part.
In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India. Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works.
This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style. Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style.
Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. Here he explains his belief that the earth is a stationary sphere, at the center of the universe, which revolves about it daily.
According to Ptolemy, even Marinus had made mistakes, either because he had consulted a€?too many conflicting volumes, all disagreeing,a€? or because he had never completed the final revision of his map.
However, Ptolemy rigorously applies the conical projection only to the northern part of his map of the world. The parallel bounding the southern limit of the habitable world is equidistant from the equator in a southerly direction as the parallel through Meroe is distant in a northerly direction. Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310 in Book IV) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean. Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean. The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art. Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art. It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90.
The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities. Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures.
Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word. While his proofs of the sphericity of the earth are still accepted today as valid, Ptolemy rejected the theory of the rotation of the earth about its axis as being absurd. To represent the known parts of the southern hemisphere on the same sheet, he describes an arc of a circle parallel to the equator, and at the same distance to the south of it, as Meroe [MA¦roe] is to the north, and then divides this arc in parts of the same number and size, as on the Parallel of Meroe.
That paradox notwithstanding, though, Ptolemya€™s depiction of a southern Afro-Asian continent and a land-locked Indian Ocean provided little comfort during the intervening 1,300 years to those early explorers, and later the Portuguese, in their attempts to find an all water route to India. Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio).
Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well.
Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts. It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures. They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures.
Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718. Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing.
When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. However, Marinusa€™ treatise on geography, with its maps, should still be ranked among the most important of the lost documents of the ancients, if for no other reason than that it was the foundation upon which Claudius Ptolemy built. The network is then obtained by joining the intersections to corresponding points on the equator.
The twenty-one parallels are spaced at equal lineal intervals and each one is designated by (1) the number of equinoctial hours and fractional hours of daylight on the longest day of the year and (2) the number of degrees and minutes of arc north of the equator.
In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time.
For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work.
The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library.
The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting. Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained.
The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania.
Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". For example, the first parallel of latitude north of the equator was distant from it a€?the fourth part of an houra€? and a€?distant from it geometrically about 4A°15a€™a€?.
During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works. In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse.
The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures.
In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen").
New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted. The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world. One other parallel is added south of the equator, identified with the Rhaptum promontory and Cattigara and about 8A° 25a€™ distant from a€?The Linea€?. Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed. The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories.
Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs.
Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks.
Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities. For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities.
The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy".
All of the parallels north of the equator are located theoretically with the exception of three: Meroe, Syene and Rhodes. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul.
This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician. The first one, Clima I per Meroe, (so called because it passes through Meroe, near modern Shendi, a city of Africa at 17A° N latitude) was established traditionally as 1,000 miles below Alexandria and 300 miles from the torrid zone; it was also known as the royal seat and principal metropolis of Ethiopia [Africa]. Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595). The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink.
The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period. From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat. In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes.
New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent.
The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404).
The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines. One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (?
With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion.
Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames. The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200). The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision.
The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature.
These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief.
Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants. Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended.
The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed.
They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars.
No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art. Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures. Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced.
Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples.
Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy.
Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi.



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