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Published 13.04.2014 | Author : admin | Category : What Do Women Want In A Man

Summary chart with panels displaying various depth scales, cores, casing, markers, wireline logs, graphic lithologies, IGD (interpreted geological data) including sequences, lithostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biozones, palaeoenvironments and chart key.
Biostratigraphic distribution chart with panels displaying sample depths and types, analysts, and biostratigraphic occurence data displayed in various styles. Chart showing a stratigraphic correlation of two wells based on biostratigraphic events and IGD boundaries displayed on a depth scale.
Chart showing a stratigraphic correlation of two wells based on biostratigraphic events and IGD boundaries displayed on an age scale.
During the first project phase between June 2006 and Mai 2009, four field campaigns were carried out in the western branch of the East African Rift system in the vicinity of the Rwenzori Mountains. The Albert rift, on which concentrates the work of the Riftlink research group, consists of two rift segments being partly filled by lakes and separated by the structurally and topographically outstanding Rwenzori Mountain fault block (see project B1).
Due to the equatorial climate conditions, the region is covered by dense vegetation and intense tropical pedogenesis produces a thick soil layer.
Figure 2: Geological map of the Kisegi-Nyabusosi area, situated northeast of the Rwenzori Mountains.
Figure 3: Facies model of the region northeast of the northern tip of the Rwenzori Mountains at Lower Pleistocene times when a mature graben structure evolved. Aiming to interprete the logged sections with respect to genetically related strata and the repeated reoccurrence of associated architectural elements, we followed the base level concept of Cross and Lessenger (1998).
Parallel to the work in the old rift sediments, we carry out investigations on recent denudation rates (of the last 10000-30000 years) on the Rwenzori Mountains, the rift shoulders and the adjacent basement plateau regions. Archaeological research involves the interpretation of the finds recovered during excavation. One of the most important steps of the research at Dmanisi is to define the stratigraphy of the site. One method for dating sediment is paleomagnetism, which studies the reversals of the earth’s magnetic field over time.
In addition to determining the age and geology of the site, the research team is working on a broad range of data related to the site history.


The aim of the sedimentological investigations was to reveal on the one hand the characteristics and the conjunction of the different source and sink areas and on the other hand to gain an overall picture of the rift related sedimentation.
The rare outcrops of the synrift sediment succession area located south of the Rwenzori Mountains along the Kazinga Channel between Lakes George and Edward, east of the central Rwenzoris at the Mobuku river, and finally northeast of the Rwenzori Mountain range in the Kisegi-Nyabusosi area and along the eastern shore of Lake Albert in Kaiso area (Fig. 1, section 2), the almost complete middle Miocene to upper Pleistocene siliciclastic succession reaches a thickness of ca. In this concept, sedimentation and erosion is controlled by changes in the ratio of accommodation to sediment supply , thus the spatiotemporal rift graben evolution can be reconstructed from changes of supply and available accomodation space (related to graben subsidence and lake level fluctuations). 1) by lithologic logging of the Pliocene to Pleistocene rift sediments of the Kaiso area which are (in contrast to the Kisegi-Nyabusosi sequence) unaffected by the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains concerning their depositional history. All this data finally merges to a general picture of the changing denudational and sedimentational processes and hence landscape evolution from Middle Miocene to recent times for this so far merely explored part of the East African Rift system. These data are used to test and refine hypotheses regarding site formation, past environments, and human activities at Dmanisi.
Stratigraphy, including lithostratigraphy and biostratigrapy, is a branch of geology that studies both the age of the site and changes within the site. To determine the absolute age of Dmanisi, we used radioisotopic dating as well as paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic dating. Palynologists and paleobotanists are investigating plant fossils and ancient vegetation to help gain an insight into the ancient ecological setting of the site. Lithostratigraphy is perhaps the most obvious, dealing with layers of sediment, reflecting the changes of environments of deposition, known as facies change. At Dmanisi, for example, the sediments show a change from normal to reversed polarity which is dated to ca.
Paleoanthropologists and paleontologists are researching the morphological similarities and differences between the Dmanisi fossils and other species described at other localities. The two southern outcrop areas only show insight into relatively young deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age, i.e. The biostratigraphic dating bases on mollusc associations investigated by Gautier (1970), Pickford et al.


Biostratigraphy is the same as paleontologic stratigraphy, based on the fossil evidence in the rock layers.
Altogether 380m were logged in detail in 20 outcrops along a NE-SW oriented stripe in offset manner throughout the sequence.
Another branch of stratigraphy is chronostratigraphy that studies absolute ages of rocks and sediments. These combined efforts are shedding new light on the behavior and ecology of the Dmanisi hominins. Some of these sites show alluvial deposits, whereas others are covered by thick volcaniclastic ashfall deposits. In contrast, the two northern outcrop areas allow much deeper insight into the synrift sequence encompassing the last 12.5 Ma. Conglomeratic layers are mainly restricted to the oldest and youngermost parts of the succession.
As both located in a marginal graben position where the sediment sequence (in contrast to stronger subsiding central graben areas) does not reach maximum thickness and was deposited under nearshore, shallow lacustrine, or alluvial conditions. Rare intercalations of thin carbonate beds, carbonaceous concretions and gypsum precipitations occur throughout the succession. A remarkable feature in the middle and upper part of the sequence are the frequent impregations by reddish and ochre coloured ironoxide and hydroxide impregnations. Some of these ferrugineous beds consist of accumulated pisolithic and ooidic concretions, with the latter often containing a lot of intermixed fossil fresh water mollusc shells and fish bones. This stratigraphic frame was the base for our sequence stratigraphic work on the synrift sediments. The depositional environments of the beds alternate from alluvial to lacustrine with transitions, e.g.



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